Friday, December 7, 2012


SCHOOL YEAR 2008/2009

A. Background Issues

As mentioned in the opening Act of 1945 that one of the national objectives of the Republic of Indonesia is the nation's intellectual life. And to achieve these objectives, educational activities organized through three channels, one of which through education. One alternative that may be done in schools to implement the national policy is to gradually develop the school into a space training center (training center) humans Indonesia in the future. In other words, the school as a center of education is that schools reflect society forward because pengtahuan optimum utilization of science and technology, but remains grounded in the characteristics of Indonesian-ness. Thus, education in schools should be balanced and harmonious touch pembydaan aspects, knowledge acquisition, and ownership of the skills of learners.
Learning according to the traditional concept of knowledge is a collection of some of the people who know better (teacher) little by little and eventually menjadibanyak. Learning by Biggs (1991) as stated in the introduction to teaching for learning: the view from cognitive psychology study defines three kinds of formulas, namely quantitative formulation, formulation of institutional, qualitative formulas. Quantitative, meaningful learning activities or the development of cognitive abilities charging the facts as much as possible. Institutionally, learning is seen as a process of validation (verification) of the students' mastery of the material he studied. Learning is the process of obtaining qualitative meanings and understanding and how to interpret the world around students. While many notions of learning but learning in general can be understood as a stage of change throughout an individual's behavior is relatively settled as a result of observation and interaction with the environment that involve cognitive processes.
Due to a variety of teaching and learning methods that can be used to improve student achievement in learning geography, questions will arise about how the effects of the use of the methods of teaching and learning. In respect of the matter, the authors feel compelled to do some research about geographic differences in achievement by using the lecture method, the method of question and answer and discussion methods.B. Problem Identification
Based on the above background that the identification problem can be posed as follows: student achievement in terms of cognitive abilities in learning geography still unsatisfactory. It can be seen from all sides, one of which is the assumption that most students that learning geography is a lesson that saturate because the material was not directly linked to the reality on the ground or in nature. Assumption students is a barrier to achieving the learning objectives as outlined geography in the curriculum. On the other hand encountered in teaching geography in MA NW Lepak show that student achievement in learning geography is still not satisfactory. This is caused by several factors including:

1. Factors infrastructure used in the learning process less memenui requirements.2. Possible kekurangcermatan teachers in selecting and using methods in the delivery of learning materials geography.3. Media used in the learning process less attract students.4. Do not use a tool other than chalk and a blackboard.5. Do not use props to support learning.

C. Restrictions Problems
On the distribution of the above identification problem has raised some issues and causes that could potentially affect student achievement in learning geography. However, given the constraints of time, cost and funding, not all of the above factors can be studied. Therefore, given the extent of the problem need to be studied, namely:1. Student achievement, particularly in the areas of cognitive and learning geography efktif using lecture, question and answer and discussion.2. Student achievement, particularly in the areas of cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning history using emtode lecture, question and answer and discussion.
Object of this study is comparison or differences in student achievement in history by using lectures, question and answer and discussion of each in different times and use all three at the same time.
The subjects were a class XI Semester II MA NW Lepak learning in 2008/2009.D. Problem Formulation
Based on the extent of the problem above, the formulation of problems that can be posed in this study are as follows:1. Is there any influence penggunana lecture, question and answer method dna discussion method to increase student achievement geography kelsa XI semester MA NW Lepak?2. Are there differences in achievement history class XI semester MA NW Lepak by using lectures, discussion, and a discussion of each at different times using all three at the same time?

E. Research Objectives
Research on differences in learning achievement geography class XI semester MA NW Lepak school year 2008 aims to mengtahui difference in learning achievement geography class XI semester MA NW Lepak using lecture, question and answer and discussion where each is used at different times by use all three at the same time. And are expected to use these methods to improve student achievement especially for students of class XI semester MA NW Lepak.F. Benefits of Research
The expected benefits of this research are as follows:1. For students: to develop pengtahuan science by conducting comparative use the lecture method, frequently asked questions and discussion, both in different times or simultaneously in pembleajaran process in the classroom.2. For teachers: the results of this study, the teacher can select and use appropriate learning methods (depending on the situation, conditions and learning) in the learning process.

A. Descriptive Theoretical1. Learning Achievementa. Understanding Learning Achievement
In the Indonesian dictionary written by Drs. Adi Gunawan that academic achievement is a result that has been achieved while the presentation of education described in the literature that academic achievement is the level of students' ability in mastering the learning materials that have been taught "(1993/1994: p. 8). Thus, it can be formulated that student achievement is essentially the result reached by the student after participating in learning activities that have been given by the teacher at the school.b. Factors affecting student learning
There are several factors that affect student learning, the internal and external factors.Internal factors are factors that come from within the students themselves, while external factors are factors that are outside the student and in this study the emphasis is on external factors relating to the learning method is the method of lecture, question and answer and discussion.c. Rated Aspects in Learning Achievement
Bloom states that "There are three domains / lapnagan the learning objectives, which is why it is also an aspect which was considered in determining the achievement of cognitive, affective and psychomotor" (Roestiyah, 1986: p. 110).
Here are a quick understanding of each of these domains and their respective parts namely:1) cognitive domains (realm of copyright) is a domain that is associated with memory, knowledge, and intellectual abilities. Furthermore, Bloom states that this cognitive domain consists of six parts: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis and evaluation.2) affective domains (domains guess) concerning the objectives related to changes in attitudes, values, feelings, response assessment and characterization.3) psychomotor domains (domains intention) with respect to the objectives related to the manipulation and movement abilities (motor). Dave raised the five parts of this area that is imitation, manipulation, permanence, articulation, and experience. (Usman, 1972: p. 29-32)d. The importance of student achievement
Learning achievement is inseparable from the learning activities and evaluation of learning outcomes. Evaluation of learning outcomes is the overall activity measurement (data collection and information), processing, interpretation, and judgment to make decisions about the level of learning outcomes achieved by students after learning activities in order to achieve a predetermined goal pembelajarna.e. Minimum achievement
Set a minimum limit student learning success is always related to the disclosure of the results of the effort to learn. There are several alternative norm of measuring the degree of success the students have to follow the learning process. Among the norms of these measurements are:1) Norma scale numbered from 0 to 102) Norma scale numbered from 0 to 100
Lowest number stating graduation / learning success (passing grade) 0-10 scale is 5.5 or 6 whereas if a student is able to complete more than half of the task or can answer more than half of the evaluation instrument is no exception to the core language and mathematics that are "lock the door" knowledge of knowledge should set a higher passing grade (eg 65 or 70) than the other subjects.2. Methods of Learning
Learning methods are ways teachers to present learning materials to take in the entire learning situation. To achieve the learning objectives set consisting of five main activities, namely the selection of materials, material preparation, presentation, consolidation, formative assessment. Teachers must be able to choose the method that conformity with the teaching methods presented, so as to achieve an optimal learning goals.
As for some of the methods used in this study are:a. Lecture methodLecture method is a way of presenting the lesson with explanations and narratives secaral isan about a subject. This method is not always when its use is really well prepared, supported by tools and media as well as attention to the limits of possible uses. There are two things that must be considered in the use of this method is to establish whether fair use lecture method and the steps to use the lecture method is the preparation / planning, execution and conclusion.b. Question and answer methodQuestion and answer method is one method of learning that enables direct communication is two way traffic because at the same time going dialogue between teachers and students. Teacher asks students to answer, and vice versa.c. Methods discussionPata Essentially, the method of discussion is a method to suss out the problems with the process of thinking in kelomopk. "Therefore, it is an activity diskuis cooperation or coordination activities that contain certain basic steps that must be obeyed by all groups" (Tarin, 1987: 36).

C. Hypothesis
In accordance with this research problem, hypotheses can be proposed in this case is there is a positive effect of the use of the lecture method, the method of question and answer and discussion methods which use all three at the same time rather than each used at different times to the learning achievement geography class XI the second semester of the school year MA NW Lepak 2008/2009.

A. Research Design
Based on the research that has been done, researchers conducted a study with action research, meaning that researchers improve methods of teaching geography to students in the second semester MA XI NW Lepak school year 2008/2009, with the lecture method, the method of question and answer and discussion methods in which all three were used at the same time rather than each used at different times.B. Variable penelitain
Research conducted at MA in NW Lepak considering the location of Madrasah Aliyah is d iwilayah residence writers that will ease in the implementation, particularly at the commencement of data collection required in this event.C. Population and Sample
Population is the whole object of research (Suharsimi Arikunto, 2002: p. 108) while according Sutrisno Hadi (1980: p. 220) "the study population was all individuals who at least have the same properties." Its population used in this study is the overall student XI meter II MA NW Lepak school year 2008/2009. The number of students sitting in class XI semeste II MA NW Lepak school year 2008/2009 a total of 35 students is a class with 20 people room details male students and 15 female students.
Samples were partially or vice pouplasi studied. In this research study is the overall population. Thus, this research is not research but the study sample population. This is in accordance with the opinion Suharsimi Arikunto (1958: p. 194) who said "If the population is less than a hundred people, it's better to be assessed all of that research study pouplasi"D. Data Collection Techniques1. Identity Variables
Penelitain variable is divided into two variables, namely: first, the acquisition of student achievement in learning geography is presented using lecture method, the method of question and answer and discussion methods were each used at different times, and both student achievement gains in learning geography presented by the lecture method, the method and the method tanyaj awab discussion all three are used at the same time. After obtaining the data and test results, the data were analyzed using t-test formula. The reason for using t-test formula is to compare the test results when using the method of learning geography lecture, question and answer method, and the method of discussion, each of which is used at different times by the test results on the three test methods are used at the same time on learning geography .2. Operational Definition of Variables
Operational definitions for these two variables can be expressed in this study as follows:a. Lecture method is a way of presenting subjects with a verbal explanation and narrative about a subject.b. Question and answer method is one method of learning that enables direct communication between teachers and students.c. Discussion method is a method to solve the problem with the thinking of the group.3. Instruments and Measurement Techniques
The main instrument used in this penleitian is geography achievement test. As a supporter of the instrument will be used observation, interview and documentation. Some of the steps taken in this research instruments are as follows:a. Make lattice problems.b. Develop a grain of questions from variable aspects.c. Conducting the evaluation.d. Determining the answer key.e. Provide evaluation results.E. Data Analysis Techniques
The data will be examined in this research is quantitative data. So anlaisis method used is the method of statistical analysis.
Statistical analysis was "t-test" to test the validity of this study by Dr. I.B. Netra t-test formula as follows:Description:MI = the average number of the first (the first way)MII = average rate of two (a second way)SEmd perbedana standard error = average number

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