" KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TEUPDATE"
A. Background of Study
Languages have important roles in intellectual, emotional, and social life time of human life. People use language as stated by Hall; "Language is the institution where by human communicate and interact between each others by means of habitually used oral auditory arbitrary symbols".1 Language as a communication mean is necessary to be mastered: in the era of globalization the need of mastering foreign language, especially English as an international language, is very urgent for Indonesia as a developing country to communicate with others countries that use English language. It is clear that many leaner need to speak and interact with English multiplicity situation, as for foreign travel business or other professional reason.2
Nowadays English becomes to essential language subject of education issues in Indonesia. Indonesia Government admits as the first foreign language that is taught to Indonesia student. They learn English from elementary school up to university. Through English language subject, they hope to have ability and more confidence with English. As a matter of fact many young learners face difficulties to understanding English as their second language, which is different form their mother
tongue : grammar structure, vocabulary etc. consequently, in learning English we have to learn its grammar or structure intensively.
The grammar of English is different from Indonesia grammar; for an example the usage of personal pronoun. In English there are many types of personal pronoun and they also have different position and function, as the first person in English used as a subject (I), object (me), possesive adjective (my), possesive pronoun (mine) and reflexive (myself). In Indonesia first person "saya" is used in any position in sentences and does not change, and it makes student confuse to use English grammar.
Saya membeli sebuah buku
Ini buku saya
I buy a book
This is I book (correct: This is my book)
Although grammar does not belong to skill in English like reading, speaking listening and writing, grammar supports those skills. The is no doubt that knowledge, implicit or explicit of grammatical rules is essential for the mastery of language: you can not word unless you know how should be put together.3
Its not true the language in speech does not concern to the grammatical rule, sometimes we did not seem to be aware that the neglect of grammatical caused miscommunication, in formal contexts or academic. In reading the student will understand the text and know the ideas of the writer's if they have the ability in grammar.
Besides that in CBC (Curriculum Based Competency), 2004 for SLTP students, it is said that "Belajar Bahasa Inggris di SMP adalah untuk belajar dalam konteks penggunaan bahasa yang serius, targetnya adalah siswa dapat memiliki kemampuan berbahasa Inggris yang diterima ditingkat internasional", "Berterina" berarti bahasa Inggris yang gramatikal yang menggunakan kaidah-kaidah yang dikenal oleh penutur asli.4
So, the grammaticaly English have important roles, wheter in speaking, writing and reading, in formal context and academic. Based on the fact above in this skirpsi the writer will discuss "ERRORS ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS' TEST RESULTS ON PERSONAL PRONOUN" (A Case study in First Year of MTS Nurul Falaah Gunung Sindur, Bogor).
The writers choose personal pronoun because the student has was familiar with the material but sometimes they still confuse to use sentences and the writer makes use the test to find the students' personal pronoun error because the test can
demonstrate. How well student master the material, the teacher can get the feedback and also know where we are in order to know, where to go next.5
B. Limitation of the Problem
The writer limit the problem on the kinds of personal pronoun errors made by the first grade students of MTS Nurul Falaah Gunung Sindur, Bogor through the test.
C. Significance of Study
The writer hopes this research can gives advantages to anybody who reads this 'skripsi' and also hopes that teacher would give more attention to the differences of English grammar rules and Indonesia rules.
D. Organization of Writing
The writer divides this skripsi into four chapters;
Chapter one is a Introduction, consisting of Background of study and Organization of writing.
Chapter Two is Theoretical framework, divided into there sub chapters, they are the errors analysis. The meaning of errors analysis, the causes and the goals of errors. Second about the test the meaning, types and criteria of a good test. Third is about personal pronoun. The meaning, Types and personal pronoun problems.
Chapter There is research methodology, including time and location, method of study, population and sample research instrument, data collecting and data analysis. While research finding consist of Description of the data, data analysis and data interpretation.
Chapter Four is about conclusion and suggestion of the study.
A. Error Analysis
Learning second language or English language does not the same as learning first language or mother tongue. Learning mother tongue or first language is not influenced by other language but it is different for students who are learning English; the process of learning is influenced by their mother tongue as their first language and it causes an error and mistake in learning. It is very normal and unavoidable to happen what mentioned during the learning process, as William said; "current theories of how we learn languages recognize that habit formation is only one part of the process".1 Therefore, to achieve English acquisition, the students must get through some errors first, and then they can learn from their own errors.
1. The Meaning of Error
Human learning is fundamentally a process that involves the making of error and mistake assumptions that form an important aspect of learning virtually any skill or acquiring information, Dullay defines errors as the flawed side of learner speech or writing. They are those parts of conversation
or composition that delicate from some selected norm of mature language performance.2
It means that there is something wrong in norms of language performance; the making of errors is so unavoidable in learning process. Besides, the making of errors is one part of learning and no one can learn without the making of errors.
Meanwhile, Douglas Brown stated that errors as a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the interlanguage competence of the learner.3 Learner of language has different competences of level in learning English and automatically that has involved different cause of error. For example if learners ask: "does John can sing?" they are probably reflecting a competence level in which all verbs require a pre-posed do auxiliary for question formation; so, he has committed an error. On the other hand, Jeremy Harmer said "error is the result of incorrect rule learning; language has been stored in the brain incorrectly".4 That error may happen in teaching learning process, may be it is caused by the teacher, they have the lack of grammar competences in English teaching or by students who have
different understanding or wrong perception then they save on the brain for long time and improve in their English grammar.
When we talk about error, we may also think about mistake. Error and mistake are not the same; it is crucial to make distinction between error and mistake and most of people still misunderstand about the definition of both. To be more classified between error and mistake, Jeremy Harmer said "mistake" is "less" serious since it is the retrieval that is faulty not the knowledge".5 In other word the students know the rule, but they make a 'slip' when producing it. Meanwhile Douglas Brown gave different meaning, "a mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip".6 In that meaning it is a failure to utilize a known system correctly. All people make mistakes in both native and second language situations.
Hubbard stated "Errors caused by lack of knowledge about the target language (English) or by incorrect hypotheses about it; and mistakes caused by temporary lapses of memory, confusion, slips of the tongue and so on".7 Another way to differentiate between error and mistake is if the learners can correct themselves, it is probably mistake, but if they cannot, it is an error.
From its definition of error above, we have seen that there are some classifications of error, they are as follows:
a. Errors of competence, are the result of application of rules by the first language learner which do not (yet) correspond the second language norm
b. Errors of performances are the result of mistake in language use and
manifest themselves as repeats, false starts, corrections or slips of the
tongue.8 Error of competence is knowing what is grammatically correct;
Error performance occurs frequently in the speech of both native speaker
and second language learner or what actually occurs in practice.
The fact that learners do make errors and that these errors can be observed, analyzed and classified to reveal something or the system operating with in the learner, led to a surge of study of learners' errors called errors analysis.9
2. The Causes of Errors
Pit Corder claims that there is three major the causes of error, they are; mother tongue interference, over generalization and error encouraged by teaching material or method. 10
a. Mother tongue interference
Although young children appear to be able to learn a foreign language quite easily and to reproduce new sound very effectively, older learner has experience considerable difficulty. The sound system (phonology) and the grammar of the first language impose themselves on the new language and this leads to a "Foreign pronunciation" faulty grammatical pattern and occasionally to the wrong choice of vocabulary.
The mentalist theory claims that errors are inevitable because they reflect various stages in the language development of learner. It claims that the learner processes new language data in his mind and produces rule for its production based on the evidence.
Some over-generalization is signed by:
1). Over-generalization generally involves the creation of one deviant structure in place of two regular structures.
Example: He can sings
We are hope
It is occurs
It may be the result of the learner reducing his linguistic burden, with the omission of the third person -s
2). Over-generalization is associated with redundancy reduction, for example the - ed marker, in narrative or in other past context often appears to carry no meaning, on sentence - I buy the book last week -
it as cleared, the word "bought" does not have meaning any more because there was phrase 'last week'.11
c. Errors encouraged by teaching material or method
Error can appear to be induced by teaching process itself and error is an evidence of failure of ineffective teaching or lack control. If material is well chosen, graded and presented with meticulous care, there should never be error. Pit Corder said " it is however, not easy to identify such error except in conjunction with a close study of the material and teaching technique to which the learner has been exposed. This is probably why so little is known about them". 12
Meanwhile, Jack C. Richard divided causes of error into four areas; those are over-generalization, ignorance of rule restriction, incomplete application of rules and false concept hypothesized.13
a. Ignorance of rule restriction. This is the application of rule to contexts where they do not apply
e. g This is the man who I saw him.
That example violates the limitation on subjects and structures with who. e . g I made him to do it
It does ignore restrictions on the distribution of make.
Some rule restriction errors may be accounted for in herms of analogy and other may result from the rote learning of rules.
b. Incomplete application of rules
The occurrences of structures whose deviant represents the degree of development of the rule required to produce acceptable utterances, example, the student make a question with a question word in every statement. In this case the communication can achieved effeciently than mastering the rule of question usage.
c. False concept hypothesized
In addition to the wide range of intralingual errors, which have to do with faulty rule learning at various levels, there is a class of developmental error, which derived from faulty comprehendsion of distriction in the target language. Example;
1). One day it was happened, he form was may be interpreted as a marker of the past tense.
2). He is speaks English, is- may be understood to be the corresponding marker of the present tense.
The student will use is and was to present and past in every words follow it.
According to John Norris, there are three factors that can be classified as the causes of errors they are 14
It is often closely related to lack of motivation. Lack of motivation may be the result of the presentation style done by the teacher, which does not suit the students, or may be the materials are not interesting for the students.
b. First language interferences
First language interference is the result of the language habits that have been established in the students' native language. When the student use English, they usually bring or use the native language habit in the target language they being learn. It is same as Corder said before.
It is the most common error made by students, translating word by word of idiomatic expression in the first students' language can produce error in this type. This usually happen as the result of a situation when a learner is asked to communicate something but does not know appropriate expression or structure.
3. The Goal of Error Analysis
When Researcher conducts an error analysis, he must have at least one goal to achieve, as Rebecca M. Valette said:
"One of the goals of error analysis is to reveal learners' strategies and to help in the preparation of more effective learning materials. Another goal is to classify the types of errors and identify those which under communication, as well as those which native speakers find difficult to tolerate15
According to Sridhar's opinion there are four goals of error analysis:
" It was believe that error analysis, by identifying the areas of difficulty for the learner, could help in (i) determining the sequence of presentation of target item in text book and classroom, with the difficult item following the easier one, (ii) deciding the relatives degree of emphasis, explanation and practice require in putting across various items in the target language; (iii) devising remedial lesson and exercise, and (iv) selecting items for testing the learners' proficiency16
1. The Meaning of The Test
Say the word test and what most persons think of will probably be school examination, college entrance examination or employment. Test is involving writing or making answer.17 That definition is too broad and more
inclusive; test focused on writing and making answer activity is usually for examination in school or to get a job.
In educational and psychological ones, test is defined as a systematic procedure for observing and describing one or more characteristic of a person with the aid of either a numerical scale or category system, this test may give either quantitative or qualitative.18 The definition here is also too broad enough to include nearly all systematic procedure the school uses to describe the behavior of a child, teacher observation, questionnaires, interviews, class project term paper, etc.
Douglass Brown stated that the test in plain, "a method of measuring a person ability or knowledge in given area".19 This definition consists of the test into method, generally requires some performance or activity on the part of either testee or tester or both, Second is purpose of measuring, testing exists to a great degree in the nature of quantification of data. Test is to measure the person ability and knowledge to understand how the testee are. Then the test is of ability and knowledge, which is competence. A test is a sample performance but infers certain competence, last test is to measure given area, a case in proficiency test, even though the actual performance on
the test involves only a sampling of skill, that area is overall proficiency in a language general competence in all skills of language.
Penny Ur defined "test as an activity whose main purpose is to convey (usually to the tester) how well the testee knows or can do something".20 And John. W Oller define "test is a device thats by to asses how much has been learned in foreign language course or some part of a course".21 Learning may of course result from a test, just as feedback on knowledge may be one of spin-off a practice activity: the distinction is in the main goal; teacher doing the test is to know how well the student can receive the material and also to get the feedback and what his/her doing next.
Test, measurement and evaluation are not the same, but these are part of others. Measurement is the process of assigning numbers to individual or their characteristics according to specifics rule. Evaluation is the systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting information to determine the extent to which pupils are achieving instructional objective, and test is a set of question, each of which has a correct answer, that examines usually answer orally or writing.22
We measure achievement with a test because test is one particular measurement technique; measured by counting the number of test item the students answer correctly and we use exactly the same rule to assign a number to the achievement of each student in the class. Measurements are useful for describing the amount of certain abilities that individuals have. For example, a student obtains a row score of 85 on a grammar test; those data are called measurement.
2. Type of the Test
There are many purposes for which language test are developed; so there are many types of language test. However, many important broad categories of test that do permit more efficient description and explanation; those categories are: 23
a. Subjective and Objective test
Objective test is a test that is highly structured and requires the student to supply a word or two or to select the correct answer for among a limited number of alternatives. The variety of item objective test;
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