SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN USING GERUND; A CASE STUDY AT THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF SMA MUHAMMADIYAH MATARAM



''KUMPULAN SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TERUPDATE"

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of the Research
English is one foreign languages learned in Indonesia. It is used as an instrumental study and aimed at enabling the learners to read articles and textbooks written in English. Therefore, English has been the most important means of interactional communication. People from all over the world speak English as their second language to communicate one to another in every international event like meeting conferences, commerces, or work shop.
In the world of education, English has been taught in most countries as formal education and has been used as compulsory subject. Indonesia, as developing country has also set it in educational curriculum to include the teaching English as a foreign language. Even, nowadays, English has been taught from kindergarten up to university.
In daily clasroom activity, students often find difficulties in cropping up their ability in writing English sentences. This is because of several reasons, one of them is how to arrange the sentence grammatically. Hadi (1997:89) explains thatthere are four difficulties found in writingsuch as; vocabulary, writing process, grammatical aspect, and the process of how to start in writing. From the grammatical aspect especially if we talks about “gerund” there are still many students of  (elementary school up to university) have got difficulties in using it, even also how to arrange the sentences.
Another reason of conducting this research that the students cannot use gerund properly. This also is one of the subjectmatters to be taught to the second year students.
1.2         Statement of the Problems

             Based on the background of this study, the writer formulate the research questions that reads;
1.      How is the abilty of the second year student of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in using gerund?
2.      Does the second year student of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram get difficulties in using gerund?

1.3.    Purpose of the Study
        General purpose of this investigation is to investigate the students’ ability to use English gerund. Besides the general purpose the writer also states the spesific purpose they are :
1.      To find out the abilty of the second year student of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in academic 2009/2010 in using gerund.
2.    To find out the students difficulties in using gerund.

1.4         Significance of Study
          This study does not only have theoritical application but also practical application. The theoritical significance of this study is that its result can be used as a reference for further research in the same topic. The practical significance of this study is hopefully of some uses :
1.      To give information for the teachers about the students ability in using gerund.
2.      To give the understanding about the students difficulties in using gerunds and try to find out the factors which may cause it.
1.5     Scope of the Study
       To make the investgation is easily handled and believable, the writer limits the study to the following points:
1.        The object of this investigation is the students ability and the factors that may cause difficulties in gerund that learned by the students.
2.        The subject of this investigation is the students of the year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in academic year 2009/2010.
1.6       Definition of the Key Terms
       To avoid missunderstanding and missinterpretationof this study the writer considered to find out some of key-terms related to the present study as follows :
1.      Ability
According to Hornby (1983:2) ability is thelexical meaning of “Special nature power to do something well”. In this study, the ability refer to students mental power or skill in learning gerund.


2.      Use
The term “use” stipulates the meaning of “using or being used, or condition of being used” (Hornby, 1983: 1094). In this study, the use refer to the students’ application in using gerund.
3.      Gerund
      Gerund is the –ing form a verb a use a noun, the gerund is one kind of verb noun. To clarify  this definition gerund could be used in following ways (Thomson A.J at al 1980:227).
a.    Gerund as subject of a sentence. Example :  Teaching is a good job
b.      Gerund is a complement of a verb. Example : Her hobby is painting
c.       Gerund after preposition. Example : He was a cause of smuggling.
d.      Gerund after  certain verb. Example : I don’t mind walking
e.       Gerund is noun compound. Example : A diving board (a board for diving).
(Azhar, Betty Schrampfer. 2003. Fundamentals of English Grammar)



CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1     Definition of Gerund
Gerund is the-ing form verb use a noun, the gerund is one kind of verb noun. To clarify this definition gerund could be used in following ways. Allsop Jake, (1989:77) In Making Sense of English Grammar states that gerund is add –ing to any verb to make a kind of verbal noun called gerund. The gerund can be the subject or the object of a verb for example:
          Swimming is a good of exercise. I enjoy  swimming
According to Thomson and Martinet (1980:227) in Apractical English Grammar states the kind of gerund as follow:
a.       Gerund as a subject of sentence
b.      Gerund as complement of a verb
c.       Gerund after preposition
d.      Gerund after certain verb
e.       Gerund in non compounds

2.2     The Use of Gerund
    A gerund is used in the same ways a noun, i.e., as a subject or an object. According to Frank (1970:309). It can be concluded in gerund are used to:


a.      Gerund as subject of a sentence
Infinitive or gerund can be the subject of a sentence when in action is being considered in general sense.
b.      Gerund is a complement of a verb
Examples:
·         My fovourite occupation is reading
·         Her hobby is painting
c.       Gerund after preposition
Examples:
A verb is placed immediatelly after the peposition.
·         He was a caused of smuggling
·         He is good at telling lies
d.      Gerund after certain verb
Examples:
·         I don’t mind walking
·         I dislike eating
e.       Gerund in anoun compounds
Example:
·         A diving board (a board for diving)

2.3     Characteristic of Gerund
Gerund has two functions as noun and verb.
1.      The characteristic of gerund as a noun
Ø  Subject as verb
Examples:
·         Sleeping is necessary to life
·         Sleeping is necessary to health
Ø  Objefct as verb
Examples:     
·         I don’t like smoking
·         He enjoys hunting
Ø  Complement as verb
Examples:
·         His hobby is hunting
·         My chief delight is riding
Ø  Object as preposition
Examples:
·         She is always fond of talking
·         She is fond being admired
2.      The characteristic of gerund as a verb
Ø  Direct object
Examples:
·         He is clever at teaching mathematics
Ø  Indirect object
Example:
·         He is clever at teaching us at mathematics
Ø  Retained object
Example:
·         She is pleased at being taught mathematics
Ø  Reflective object
Example:
·         She is in the habit of oversleeping

2.4     Functions of Gerund
The gerund is a non-finitive verb that displays partly verbal and partly nominal characteristics. In other words, it has two basic functions in a sentence :
·         The verbal functions;       
·         The nominal function.
          The gerund is formed from a verb by adding the suffix –ing, e.g. playing, jumping, being done, having been seen, etc.

1.      Verbal function on the gerund
            In its verbal function, the English gerund can expess:
Ø  The active voice-e.g. dribbling, hurting
Examples:
·         Stop dribbling, its time to score
·         I am afraid of hurting myself there
Ø  The passive voice-e.g. being asked, being spoken
Examples:
·         He was afraid of being asked that question
·         You don’tlike being spoken to, do you ?
There are several in which the active gerundial construction actually express the passive. These verbs include the following :

2.Nominal function of the gerund
Gerund can function as nominal part (element) of a sentence.
            This function will be described in detail below.
Ø  The gerund ca be premodified by a preposition, e.g.:
Example:
·         We came in hope of meeting him.
·         They coudn’t get use to getting up early
Ø  The gerund can be premodified by an adjective, a possesive pronoun or the genetive case of a substantive. We can also use the objective case of a personal pronoun or the common case of a substantive instead of the possesive pronoun.
Example:
·         Would like their/them participating?
·         I don’t approve of mike studying abroad.
While gerund functions as anoun it also retains some of the characeristics of verb. Although it may have adjective modifiers like a noun (usually before it), it may also have adverbial modifiers like a verb (usually after it), if a noun precedes a gerund, it must be in the possesive, or adjectival form. In this section and the text, the gerund phrase is italicizes; the simple gerund is underlined.
          By observasing the definition above, the writer may conclude that besides the forms of English gerund such as; gerund as a subject of a sentence, gerund as a complement a sentence, gerund after preposition, gerund after certain verb, and gerund in noun compounds and some others may also be categorized as a gerund. In relation this investigation, however the writer just makes a limitation only on the four English gerunds; gerund as subject of a sentence, gerund as a complement of a verb, gerund after preposition, gerund after certain verb, and gerund in noun compounds since they are very frequently used either in written or oral communication.

2.5     English Sentence Structure
          Many people are familiar with the word “grammar” and think of a fixed set of word form and the rules of usage. They associate “good” grammar with the language prestige, such as those in writing and informal oral gerund.
As of linguistic, grammar is the rules in a language for changing the the form of words and combining them into sentence (Hornby, 1995) meanwhile in other statement, gramatical structure is the pattern of arrangement of part words into sentences (Lado, 1977:142 in Hadi 2005).   It means that structure is the pattern and see rule of English sentence.
Sentence structure should mastered by students in order to build their communication skill, as Subyakto (1988:171) point out :
“The sentence structure in the integered part of language used in, in other words the knowledge of grammatical structure structure should by mastered by students in order to be component in communicative skill” (Subyakto, 1988: 171).

2.6     Grammatical structure
Grammatical structure, vocabulary and sound of language become the basic materials in teaching and learning the language. When one uses a language, he/she  see those elements simultaneously in his/her utterances to communicate.
As in Indonesia language, in learning English, theres in an important thing in which should be mastered that is grammar, where there in Indonesia or English. Grammar is a basic elements in language, because in language itself, there many rules such as syntax or the meaning of words/sentences, etc. (Hariyanto at al, 2003:3).

2.7         Teaching Grammar
Byrd (1998) in his article “Teaching  Grammar” give a concept about how grammar can be important as one main component aspect in arranging jumble words.
          Grammar is control to the teaching and learning language, it is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well.
Teacher who adopt thus definition focus on grammar as set of forms and rules. They teach grammar by explaining the form and rules and then drilling student on them. This result disaffected student who can produce correct formon exercise and test, but consistenly make errors when they try to use the language in context.

2.8         The Place and Rules of Grammar
       This part of the writing concerns with the use of grammar. Grammar is a system of rules governing in conventional arrangement and relationship of words in a sentence. Techincally grammar refers to sentence-level rules only not to rules governing the relationship among sentences which we refers to as discourse rules.
     Brown (2001) pointed out that grammar is one of language dimension that is interconnected with other language aspect. Grammar gives us the form of the structures of language but those forms are  literally meaningless without second dimension that of semantics (meaning), and third dimention pragmatics. In other words, grammar tell us howto construct a sentence (word order, verb and noun system, modifiers, phrase, clause, etc) and discourse rules tell us hoew to string those sentence together.
     While Schumann (1980:252 in Azhari:2002) stated that in learning his first language, he never got formal instruction ordinarily, but he gets plenty of correction or feedback. Furthermore the said that most of his learning he passed through trial, and correction (hypothesis testing and revision). He eventually learns to understand and speak his language in more or less acceptable fashion. In the writer’s sight that all of the experts have no differentiation in verifying the role of grammar, just express it in many sentences.

1)      Age
Due to normal intellectual development variables, young children. Can profit from a focus on form if attention to form is offered through structured input and inciental, indirect error treatment. Somewhat older children may benefit as well from very simple generalizations (such as “This is the way we say it when we were talking about yesterday”) and concrete illustrations. Adult, with their abstract intellectual capabilities, can use grammatical pointers to advance their communicative abilities.

2) Profiency
       If we force too much grammar focus in beginning level learners, we run the risk of blocking their acquisition of fluency skills. At this level, grammatical focus is helpful as an  “zoom lens” with which we zero in or some aspects of language but not helpful if it becomes the major focus of the class work. At the advanced level, grammar is not necessarily not important as Celce Murcia should suggest by her chart. Rather it is less likely to disturb communicative fluency. It may or may  not be more important depending on accuracy already achieved by learns.

3)      Educational Background
       Students who are non-literate or who have no formal educational background may find it difficult to grasp the complexity or grammatical terms and explanation. Highly educated students, on the other hand are cognitively more receptive to grammar focus and may insist on error correction to help refine their already fluent skills.

4)      Language Skills
       Because of the permanence of writing and the demand for perfection in grammatical form in written English, grammar focus may be more effective in improving writing than speaking, reading and writing.




CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Method of Reasearch
            The succes or failure of a research depends on the method that is used. And is research activity, method takes a very important roles in order to achieve the purpose of the research that demanded. So it is considered important to describe the methodology that is used in this study. Donald Ary (1972:276) states that the writer use descriptive method in this research. This method is expected to be able to investigate the students ability in using gerund.

3.2        Population and Sample
a)      Population of the Study
The population of the study is the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in academic year 2009/2010 consist of 148 students. They are all 4 classes (II IPA 1, II IPA 2, II IPS 1 and II IPS 2) who have actively joining the English lesson. Then the writer decide to take them in random sampling by lottre.

b)     Sample of the study
It was stated above that the population of this present study was  is the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in  academic year 2009/2010. Since the population consists of 148 students and as Arikunto (1991: 40) said that if the population is less than 100, it is better to take all of the population as the sample, and if the population is more than 100 it is better to take 10%-15% or 20%-25% of it. Based on the sampling technique above the writer decided to take 10%-15% of the population as sample and the writer take 14%. So, the research subject of this study is 20 students as shows in the tabel bellow:
Table of population and sample of the study.
No
Class
Population
Sample
Number of the students
1
II IPA 1
42
5
2
II IPA 2
30
5
3
II IPS 1
37
5
4
II IPS 2
39
5
Total
148
20

3.3       Data Collection Procedures 
            The recent study aims at reseaching of the second year students of SMA Muhammadiyah Mataram in using gerund in academic 2009/2010.
                   The test is constructed in grammar test (translate English sentencees into Indonesian), in order words, the whole students are asked to do the same test of it. This test would be delivered in one occasion (one meeting). The test have 20 items, and each one of theitem is scored 5.    So, the students will getthe highest score is 100 and the lowest score is 0. Finally, the students score of the test will be analyzed and further disscussed.
 Classification of the students scored will refer to the following table:
No
Qualification
Quantity
Degree
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Excellent
Good
Fair
Poor
Complete Failure
4
3
2
1
0
80-100
70-79
60-69
50-59
0-49
(Suharsimi, Arikunto, 1997:251)
The above table means :
Excellent (4) : Those students who are able to answer the test item between 80-100 correctly.
            Good (3) : Those students who are able to answer the test item between 70-79 corectly.
Fair (2) : Those students who are able to answer the test item between 60-69 correctly.
Poor (1) : those students who are able to answer the test item between 50-59 correctly.
       Complete Failure (0) : Those suents are able to answer the test item between 0-49 correctly.

3.4       Data Analysing Procedures
            To determine wheter the students are  regareded succesful, at least 75% they must get score 60 or more. But if less than 75% of the students receive this score, they are considered to have failed.
     After collecting the data, the next step is to analyze the students’ scores carefully. Than the writer computing them into the formula bellows:
a.        
b.        
Where :    ∑S       = Number of students get score ≥ 60
                 ∑F       = Number of students get score < 60
N         = Number of students as sample
To obtain the information concern with the ability of the students, the writerdetermines a table of percentage scale and qualifications as follows:
Score
Qualification
75-100
50-74
0-49
Good
Sufficient
Low
(Basuki, 1984:27)

3.5       Method of Analyzing Data
In this study, the instrument used by the writer was grammar test. Exactly, to analysis the students ability in using gerund by the following steps bellows:
1.      Giving score to the students’ answer. Each correct answer will be given score 5 (five).
2.      Counting the students score.
3.      Counting the score to identify the ability or disability of students whose get score more than 60 (>60) are identified able, while the students whose get score less than 60 (<60) are identified disable using gerund.

NB : INGIN VERSI LENGKPANYA.....SILAHKAN SOBAT REQUEST DIKOLOM KOMENTAR...TERIMA KASIH.................

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