"SKIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS"
1.1 Background of the study
Grammar is important, but it is not all important. Grammar is only needed so that communication through language can proceed smoothly (poedjosoedarmo, 1987)
It has outlined on 2004 curiculum that in learning English one of the important thing to be taught is language function or grammar. Therefore,when we consult the English text books bassed on the curriculum 2004 we can find it is emphasizes on the grammar matery as well as the other language components and language skills. It is quite different from the 1994 curiculum which is communicative based. The students should be able to communicate in target language either spoken or written.
However, when the student come to the evaluation phase, ether regional or national examination, they were still faced a big sum of test on grammar items, such condition was employed for years, the students in the language classroom are emphasizes on the on the acquisition of linguistics structure of vocabulary, and as results the students may know the rules of language usage and can use the language properly ( Depdikbud 1977:2).
The language learners (students) should pose enough grammar competence, since in producing a correct sentences,knowledge on grammar is a must. Such as point out by a scholar that “The primary function of language is to convey meaning: grammatical structures exists for this purpose” (Long, 196:1-2).
On of the important elements of language grammar that should be mastered by the students is the causative. This is aimed at attaining the students proper basicof grammatical sentence patters. Such any other grammatical elements,causative in English causative perfectly, the speaker or the writers (applied linguistics) dould convery their wish to show that some action was performed, not by us, but by some action was performed, not by us, but by somebody else at our study.
I had dressmaker make a dress
“saya menyuruh penjahit membuat tok atau pakaian”
Causative is a sentence pattern which is usually used as an instruction, asking or causing other people (Basari, 2002:143). Another scholar wrote that causative is a transitive verb which express causation (Herman,1978:95).
1.2 Statement of the problem
Related to the statement described above, the writer formulates two statements of problems as follows:
- Are the second grade student of SMAN 1 Gerug in academic year 2010/2011 able to use causative have?
- what is the level ability of the second grade students of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 in using causative have?
- what factors that may cause students “difficulties of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 in learning causative have?
1.3 Purpose of the study
This study is aimed at finding out several things, such as:
- The students ability on causative of the second grade students of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011
- Several factors that may cause some students difficulties in learning causative.
1.4 Scope of the study
This particular investigation is conducted under scopes that are formulated as the following points:
- the subject of this investigation is limited at the second grade students of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011, that consist of 40 students.
2. the investigation of the students ability in using causative have.
1.5 Signifieance of the study
The writing hopefully is of some users:
1. to improve the English teacher is determining student ability on causative have.
2. to provide the student to develop their knowledge about causative have
3. as a basic consideration for further research beyond the concept of causative of English.
1.6 Definition of the key terms
In order to avoid possible misunderstanding or misinterpretation on the part of the readers concering to the variables involved inn this writing, the writer states some operational definition used to clarify the terms as shown at the following parts.
according to oxford advance learners dictionary skill is an ability to do something expertly and well ( As Horn by, 1986), or in other words skill is a certain ability found through education and experience.
causative is usually used as an instruction of course the instruction is done by the other man and the result is the most important. In clear, according to America heritage dictionary, causative refers to (1) a verb functioning as an agent or cause, (2) expressing causation used of a verb or verbal (Fernando, et al., 1980:713).
In British English, have meaning possess is not normally conjugated with do except when there is an idea of habit.
“understanding means the ability to grasp mentally”. (Hornby A.S.1974:338). Ability means the quality of being able to do something; physical.mental,financial; or legal power to perform or a natural or acquired skill or talent. (pg.3)
It also means the students are hopefully have fully comprehension upon the reading materials they are encountering.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concept of Second Language Acquisition
Even though one has already been well-equipped with native language communicative competence, he learn further a second or, perhaps a third language, according his needs in the social life. If he has only one language in his daily communicative interact, then he learns another language, his learning is supposed to be second language although they have already been able to speak and write two different languages. This later learning is considered to he foreign language learning, but recent literatures tent to use term ‘second language learning’ as a cover term for both ‘second’ and ‘foreign’ language learning (Littlewood, 1984 : 2).
There have been many theories concerning the way a child or adult learners a second or foreign language. Brown (in Tarigan, 1988 : 183), for example, has set out the Acculturation Model of Language Learning, while Hatch (also in Tarigan, 1988 : 193) has set out Discourse Theory. Universal hypothesis, etc. in summary, the child or the adult learns the language through hypothesis testing which is trial and error in nature. It is in according learning, according him is…” a creative process of constructing a system in which the learners is consciously testing hypothesis about the target language from a number of sources of knowledge, limited knowledge of the target language, it self, knowledge about the native language, knowledge about the communicative function of language, knowledge about language in general, and knowledge about life, human beings, and the universe” (Brown, 1987 : 162).
When one starts learning a second or foreign language, he has already spoken his native language. In learning and teaching a second or foreign language, people who have already acquired a native language find some advantages and difficulties. The advantages are that from the experience with mother tongue, the learners have some intuitive knowledge about the nature, characteristic ad the uses of languages. The native language, to some extent, is also useful for the languages. The native language, to some extent, is for the explanation of the patterns, rules and subsystems of the target language (Nababan, 1981 : 17).
Behind the tremendous advantages, however, there are some disadvantages of the student’s native language in the second language learning of classroom instructions. The language with its linguistics items, rules and sub systems has been well-integrated to the learners’ mind that when he learns a second language, his learning is often influenced by the sounds, habits and the grammar of the native language. Indonesia learns of English, for instance, often construct noun phrase like “house green” for the English noun phrase “green house” as the habits of Bahasa Indonesia have the formula of noun phrase of noun + adjective like in “rumah hijau” in short, the native language may facilities learning but also inhibit it, specially in the patterns which are I high degree of difference and some irregular distributions in which the learning supply translation techniques, transformation strategy and easy-mode conversion (Nababan, 1981 : 22).
Regardless of the advantages and disadvantages of the native language to a second or foreign language learning, researchers today area trying and hard to find out how the learners the target language. Ellis, (1986 : 249-281) describes seven theories of language learning in terns of the learning and acquisition that may take place.
The theories are The Acculturation Model, Accommodation Theory, discourse Theory, The Monitor Models, The Variable Competence Model, The Universal Hypothesis, and the Neur-functional Theory.
The most interesting theory, among others, is Khrasen’s Monitor Model. His model of language learning consists of five central hypothesis and this number of other factors which strongly influence second or foreign language learning and acquisition. First of all, the target language can be learned by simple acquisitions, and learning as well.
Finally, the affective filter hypothesis. The filter is “the part of the internal processing system that subconsciously screens incoming language based on what psychologist call ‘affect’ (Dullay, 1982 : 46). This filter will control how much input learners are able to take into the internal processing the filter, of course, affects the rate of learning and the development of the grammatical system acquired (Ellis, 1986 : 263).
Concept of Correctness and Appropriateness in Grammar Usage
The aims of language teaching course are very often defined with reference to the four ‘language’ listening, speaking, reading and writing. These aims, therefore, relate to the kind of activity which the learners are to perform. In this view, the teaching of language involves developing the ability to produce correct sentences.
Many teachers of lectures would subscribe to this view and it has been productive of a good deal of impressive language teaching materials. In some respects, however, it is unsatisfactory (Windowson, 1990 : 1).
The language learners readily acknowledge that the ability to produce sentences is a crucial cine in the learning of a language. It is important to recognize, however, that learners need to acquire. Someone knowing a language knows more than how to listen, speak, read and write sentences. He also knows sentences are used to communicative effect.
Furthermore, Harman (1978 : 12) points out that the learning of language, then involves acquiring the ability to compose correct sentences. That is one aspect of the matter. But it also involves acquiring and understanding of which sentences or part of sentences are appropriate in a particular context. Therefore, (Windowson, 1990 : 3) states that the first kind of ability depends upon knowledge of the grammatical rules of the language being learned.
Concept of Causative
Harman (1978 : 95) defines causatives as “a transitive verb which expresses causation”. Similary, Djauhari restricts that “Causative ‘Have’ is usually used as an instruction of cause the instruction is done by the other man and the result is the most important (Djauhari, 1986 : 186). In clear, according to American Heritage Dictionary, Causative refers to (1) a verb functioning as an agent cause, (2) expressing causation used of a verb or verbal (Fernando, et.al., 1980 : 713). Another scholar, Sujana states that “causative verbs are used to indicate that one person causes the third person to do something for the firs person who can be divided into active and passive causative” (Sujana, 1999 : 11). Another writer points out that (1) causative ‘have’ can mean asking someone else to do something else for him/her, (2) causative have can be followed by object + infinitive, and it has an active sense.
Furthermore, Basari (2002 : 143-149) classifies causative ‘have’ into two major categories, these are :
1. Pattern I
First of all, causative ‘have’ is used to ask someone to do something. Therefore, to convey such message through this kind of sentence, the speaker should apply the following formula :
Subject + have + objective + verb 1 + object
For example :
I had the dressmaker make a dress
He had the cobber mead his shoes
They had a mechanic repair the bicycle
Mother had the gardener clean the garden
2. Pattern II
Another pattern of causative ‘have’ is by asking someone do to something for us. In this extant, verbs used after object is a participle (V3). The formula is a follow :
Subject + will + have + object + verb 3 (Perticiple)
For example :
I will have a dress made
He will have his shoes mended
They will have the motorcycle repaired
Mother will have the garden cleaned
Another writer classifies causative “have/get” into three major categories those are : personal causative sentences with “have”, personal causative sentences with “get” and causative from with the passive meaning.
The Function of Causative Have
The causative have verbs are used to indicate that one person causes the second persons to do something for the first person.
a. Auxiliary Have
Have/has can be used a regular to refer to states (conditions).
· I have three brother
· He has new book
· She has breakfast every morning
2. “have” as auxiliary in present perfect
It is used to describe an activity that happened in the past when time is not important.
Consider other example below :
· I have answer two questions today
· I have already seen that movie
· They have moved into a new apartment
· Have ever visited Mexico.
3. “have/has” as causative
The causative verbs are used to indicate that one person causes the second persons to something for the first person. There are two kind of causative : Active Causative and Passive Causative.
b. Active causative
We ask someone to do something for us, bare infinitive comes after object.
· Jane had John fix the car
· The president is going to have adviser arrange a conference.
· They will have him carry the boxers.
· She is having Gorger accompany her.
c. Passive causative
Ask something to be done.
The word order is important, the past participle (done/repaired, etc) comes after the object (e.g. the roof).
· Jill had the roof repaired yesterday.
· John is having his hair cut.
· She will have her transcript translated.
d. Causative get is active causative to infinitive comes after object.
· Jane got John to fix the car.
· They get him to carry the boxers.
The Definition and Purpose of Structure Test
A language test is device that tries to assess how mush has been learned in a foreign language course or come part of course (Oller, 1999 : 1). Heaton (1988 : 5) state that testis device to reinforce learning and to motivate the students or a means of assessing students’ performance in the language.
In this part the writer present the method of research applied in this study which is followed by a brief discussion of population sampling as well as the method of collecting analyzing data finally, the research instrument used to gather the need data to end up this section.
After determining the problems, purposes and hypothesis of the investigation, it is continued by observing and collecting the data for the accomplishment of the study which was partially conducted trough intensive library research.
In research activities the function of method is very important because the success of research is depending on the method applied.
The method of the study, first of all the writer formulates the title of this research as follows "an analysis of the students' achievement in reading comprehension taught by using summary at the second year students" of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011”
The aims of this study is to find out whether summarized reading in post activities text have any positive contribution towards the students’ reading achievement.
The method of the research to be applied is descriptive research and the data is collected trough the result of a test that distribute to the students and data analysis in basic statistical consumption.
In conducting investigation one of the important element is that what is termed as a research population. Sutrisno Hadi defined population as a number of people or individual who have at least the same character (Sutrisno Hadi: 1984 ; 220).
In this study population is defined as a set of element and/or character having at least the same category the target population of this research is at the Second year students of SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 which consist of 65 students who sit in two classes.
Sample is part of population that it’s characteristic want to study. The element of sample less than the element of population (Djarwanto: 1990 ; 43).
In taking the number of sample, the writer referred to Surachmad states that if the population less than one hundred, the sample can be taken for 50%, and if the population more than one hundred the sample can be taken for 20%.
From the definition above, the writer takes 50% because the population in SMAN 1 Gerung in academic year 2010/2011 at the second year is less than one hundred (65 students). Finally, the writer gets 34 students as a sample in which 17 from class IIA and 17 students from class IIB. The sampling is done randomly.
3.4. Method of Data Collection
A data collecting is very important step in scientific research because the data will be used to the test the hypothesis that has been formulated. For this study, the data will be obtained from both of the groups. They are treated to use the kind of the same reading material, test by the same item and the same length of the time limitation to do, it is presented in a different way.
Experimental group is asked to summarize the reading text based on the questions given, while control group is treated without any summarizing.
The writer then applies one type of test where the students are expected to answer all of questions while they are reading the reading text. Before the instructional activities, the two group are pre tested to know the students' previous ability by using the same test. Afterwards, both of the groups are given a post test to know their reading comprehension after the process of the reading activities done.
3.5. Research Instrument
A research needs indicator or instrument with the certain relation ship among variable in population the instrument used is intended to measure reading achievement as she constructs. She constructs the same reading text either for experiment or control group. There are three reading text comprised 10 items in each in forming multiple choice answer.
3.6. The Method of Analyzing Data
After raw scores are collected from both groups, group experiment and control group. It is computed with the following steps; first, the writer calculated the means score of the teo groups by applying the following formula:
ME = is the mean score of experimental group
X = is the deviation score of pre test and post test
N = is the number of sample in experimental group
The similar formula is also applied to compute the mean of control group. Second, the writer computes and compares the significance of deviation of the two mean scores :
(Arikunto, 1993 : 269)
The score of students of pre test and post test are considered as the data of the recent study.
ME = Is the mean score of experimental group
MC = Is the mean score of control group
NE = Is the total number subject of experimental group
NC = Is the total number subject of control group
X = Is the deviation of x1 and x2
Y = Is the deviation of y1 and y2
∑ = Is the sum of
= Is the root of
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TEACHER'S NOTE ON READING
Topic : Music
Level : SMAN 1 Gerung
Allocated time : 2 x 40 minutes
- The students are able to find out the kinds of music
- The students are able to find out the specific meaning information of music
- The students are able to find out the detail meaning of music
- The students are able to find out the deduce the meaning from the context
- Pre Activity
- The teacher asks the students some questions:
1). What do you thing about the music?
2). Mention what kind of music do you know?
3). Tell the music in your country!
- The teacher explains the students what they are going to read about.
- While Activity
- The teacher gives instruction
- The teacher discuss what the reading text about with the students
- The teacher checks the students whether the students understand or not by asking some questions.
- Post Activity
- The teacher treats the students in experimental group with summarizing technique
- The teacher treats the students in control group without any summarizing
- The teacher asks the students to submit the results of direct task on a piece of paper
READING FOR PRE AND POST TEST
- Write down your name and students number on the upper left of the answer sheet
- Read the passage carefully and then answer the question
There are many kinds of music, such as classical music, waltz, jazz, pop music, and rock 'n roll music. In this text we are going to discuss about jazz music.
Jazz began in the early 20th century as a music of black Americans. It was intended for singing, dancing, entertaining and party atmosphere. Since then, jazz continued to develop. There are many leading singers, instrumentalist, and composers in the world. Jazz has also influenced almost every other kind of music. Jazz represent blending of musical elements from Africa and from Europe. Jazz uses some European ideas of harmony and melody, but the rhythms are more African in origin. It is irregular in rhythm.
Jazz has also developed in Indonesia. Most people in Indonesian know who Ireng Maulana is. He and his band often appear on television. His band is one of the leading jazz music bands.
- How many kind of music are mentioned in the text?
- What is the main idea of Paragraph two?
- The rhythm of jazz
- The development of jazz
- The blending of music element
- Jazz is a black American music
- Why is jazz irregular in rhythm? Because ….
- It is the black American's music
- It uses European's harmony and melody
- Jazz began in the early 20th century
It combines African and European musical
Bali is an island in the Indonesian archipelago. It is in the south of the equator and has warm weather all the year. The rainy season is November to April, but it can rain anytime. Bali is 120 kilometres wide from East to west and 80 kilometres from north to south, so everyone is quite close to the sea. Bali is shaped like diamond. Mount Agung, a volcano, is 3142 metres high and is visible from far away. Most of the people are Hindus. There are many temples and many religious festivals.
Tourism is the most important industry. Many tourists visit Bali to see the beautiful scenery and interesting festivals, to swim in the warm seas, to look at the beautiful mountains and valleys, and to shop for inexpensive and beautiful clothes, painting and wood crafts.
- Where is Bali located?
- It is a long the equator
- In the south of equator
- 120 Km east to west
- Close to many temples and Mount Agung
- The last paragraph is about…?
- The location of Bali
- The most important industry in Bali
- The most popular things in Bali
- Beautiful mountains in Bali
- The tourism industry in Bali over as the following thing, except….
- Culture and nature
- Belief and religion
- Handicraft and tradition
- Wood crafting and painting
- Which one of the following statements is not true according to the text?
- Bali has four seasons
- Bali is beautiful and interesting
- Bali is surrounded by the sea
- Bali is one of the tourist destinations in Indonesia.