"SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS TERLENGKAP"
1.1 Background of Study
As we know that, English is the most widely used language in the world. It shows that English is very important to be learned by the students for international communication.
One of the popular languages that has been learned by the student up to know in all levels of education in Indonesia is English, because it can be used for communication with foreign people for conference and business.
Such a great importance brings with it huge challenge to the teacher of the language. This challenge is not only the matter of methodology and instructional strategy and also a matter between the student’s interest and motivation to learn the language. The quality of the student’s inner drive to learn language should be taken in to account. Indonesia students seem poor due to the limited number of native speakers available in the teaching English to low motivated learns. This difficult for teacher to do ( Girard, 1977 : 15 ).
People involved in language teaching often say that the students who really want to learn English will succeed in whatever situation they study. All teacher can think of situation in which certain “ motivated” students significantly do better then their friends, students frequency succeed in what to be probably conditions even though what teachers consider unsatisfactory in face of such phenomena it is quite reasonable to suggest that the students bring to class is the biggest single factor affective their success ( Harmer, 1991:13). He further says that the students with strongly motivated long term goals for the English are probably easier to teach that these who have no such goals (and therefore no real drive). For the latter students short-term goals will often provide the only motivation they feel.
In writer experience as long as learning English, some students who are interested in learning English in class sometimes paid attention to teacher explanation and usually easy for them to understand the materials. However the students who did not show any materials always looked outside or class through windows which were opened near them. Consequently it is difficult for then to understand and to do some assignment given. These interesting phenomena are the reasons for writer to choose this title.
1.2 Statement of problems
The research problems are as follow:
a. Are there any motivations in learning English of the students of SMPN 2 Jonggat?
b. Are there any motivation factors of intrinsic and extrinsic in learning English of the students of SMPN 2 Jonggat?
1.3 The Purposes of the Study
This particular writing is aimed at finding out:
a. Whether there are some motivations in learning English of the students of SMPN 2 Jonggat or not.
b. Whether any motivation factors intrinsic and extrinsic in learning English of the students of SMPN 2 Jonggat or not.
1.4 Definition of Key Terms
This research as the subject of the second year students of SMPN 2 Jonggat in academic year 2010-2011.
- Motivation is some kind of internal drives that encourage somebody to purpose encourage of action (Harmer, 1991: 13).
- Motivation is the set of reasons that determiners one to engage in a particular behavior.
- Motivation is the desire to learn a language to integrate successfully into to the target language community ( Gardner and Lambert, 1972:15)
- Motivations are (a) reasons for learning, (b) desire to attain the learning goal, (c) positive attitude to ward the learning situation and (d) effortful behavior, (Crookes and Schmidt, 1991:15).
- Learning is the process of changing original behavior through experiences and exercises ( Garry and Slay, 1970; 15)
- Learning is changing of performance as a function of practice (Groch and Irhon, 1952; 119).
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study is devoted to deal with motivation in relation to learning English at SMPN 2 Jonggat. The student’s motivation will be obtained through questionnaire and interview because there are many classes in that school.
The writer only takes the second grade (2 classes) students randomly chosen. They are class A and B.
1.6 The Significances of Study
The significances of the study are as follows:
a. To inform the stakeholders (e,g, headmaster and the parents of students) of the school in relation to the motivation in learning English.
b. To inform the teachers of the school of the second year that students motivation in learning English in order that he/she can anticipate everything related to the teaching process in class.
c. The result of the study is expected giving students’ motivation and good input in learning English process.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1. The Nature of Language
Whatever people do when they are together, when they are sitting, when they are standing, when they play, fight, chat and communicated they usually talk. Chomsky in Fromkin ( 1990:110 ) says that language that the human use is distinguishable from other non humankinds’ language. It is unique to man, dealing with human language mans that we are approaching what some might call human essence.
People live in worked of language. We talk to friends, relatives, wives and husband, talking to our lovers, our teacher, our parents we use language. We talk to bus drivers, we talk to strangers, we talk to face to face and over telephone and everyone responds with more talk. We listen to television and radio broadcasting. Hardly of a moment of our waking lives is free from words, and even our dream we talk and talked to.
The possession of language is more then any other attribute, distinguishes human from other animals. To understand our humanity we must understand the language that makes use human. Fromkin (1990:111) further says that it is language that is the source of human life and power. Therefore, a new born child a ‘thing’ not yet a ‘person’. Only by the act of learning does the child become a human being.
2.2. Why Learning English
Learning as used here refers to concerted activity that in crease the capacity and willingness of individuals, groups, organization and communities to acquire and productively apply new knowledge and skills to grow and mature and to adapt successfully to change and challenges. Such leaning empowers individuals and organization to make wise choices, solve problems and break new ground, learning certainly includes academic studies and occupational training through high school and beyond. But it also encompasses the physical, emotional and social development of children in the earliest years of their life ( http/www/google.com )
There are number of different reason why learn English the following treasons give great variety of the reason stated by (Harmer: 1994:13)
- School curriculum
Probably the greatest number of language student in the world do it because it is on the school curriculum whether they like it or not. For many of these students English, in particular, is something that both they and their parents want to have taught. For orders, however, the study of English is something they feel negative about it.
Some students want to study English because they think it offers a chance for advancement in their professional lives. They will get a better job with two language than if they only know their mother tongue. English has a special position here since it hag become the international language of communication.
- Target language community
Some English language students find themselves living in a target language community either temporary or permanently. A target language community is one where the inhabitants speak the language which the students are learning; for the students of English speaking country would be target language community. The students would need to learn English to survive in that community.
- English for specific purposes
Some students want to learn English because they want to read book written in English. They want to go to university in the Unite State or in Australia. On the other hand, may need English so that they can write report or essays and function in seminars.
In general , every one knows what motivation is, but it is not always easy to understand what motivation actually is. According too Dornyei in Tudor (1990:224), motivation is easier to describe than it is to define. Further he suggests that motivation is an abstract concept that we use to explain why people thing and behave as they do. It is obvious that in this sense the term derives from the whole range of motivation, from financial incentive such as raise in salary to idealistic beliefs such as the desire from freedom that have very little in common except that they influence behavior. Thus, motivation is best seen as a broad umbrella term than converse a variety of meaning.
In connection to learning process, Biggs and Moore (1993:110) stat that motivation is the starting point for language. How a student is motivated determines whether or not that he or she will attempt to learn and how the task is approached. So why do the students learn? The answers are first, they value either the out come of the process of learning, second, they expect that that they will be successful. Without the presence of both elements, the activity being valued will not be performed.
Sprint hall (1987:98) states that teacher have long recognize that those motivation or non intellectual factors are critical in the trimming the achievement of their students. Even if we were to develop an absolute reliable, valid, culture fair measure of intelligence, no totally accurate prediction of academic achievement could be made without considering motivational variables, it applies that motivation is inseparable factor on learning and or at least become one of the most important factor within.
Generally, there are two types of motivation. They are intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation is initiative or driving from inner mind whereas extrinsic is drivers and initiative are influenced by out side factors.
- Extrinsic Motivation
It has been stated previously that student study a language because they haven idea of something they wish to achieve. That idea is referred to as motivations. They are integrative motivation and instrumental motivation.
Integrative motivation for this kind of motivation students need to be attracted by the culture of the target language community, and in the strong from of integrative motivation they wish to integrate or put himself in the exposure (Krashen, 1983:25) of that language culture, a weaker from of such motivation would be the desire to know as much as possible about the culture of the language.
Instrumental motivation this term describe a situation in which students believe that mastery of the target language will be instrumental in getting them a better job, position or status. The language is an instrument in their attainment of such a goal.
Many other factors have impact upon a student’s level of instrumental motivation and most of these have something to do with his or her attitudes to the language (Numan, 1991:21). Nunan further states that if the parents are every much against the culture of the language this will probably affect his or her motivation in negative way. If they are very much in favor of the language this might the opposite effect. The student’s friends will also be in overfull position to affect the attitude. What can The teachers do about instrumental motivation and students attitude them? In relation to this, it is clear that we can not create it since comes into classroom from outside. It is clear too that students have to be prepared to take some responsibility for their own learning
- Intrinsic Motivation
It is reasonable that many adult learners have some degree of extrinsic motivation, and it is clear that the attitude of the students can be affective by their friends. But there can be not doubt that intrinsic motivation plays a vital in most student’ success or failure as language learners. Many students bring no extrinsic to the classroom. They may even have negative feeling about language learning. for them what happens in the classroom will e a vital importance in determining their attitude to be language, and supplying motivation which we have suggested is a vital component in successful language learning.
For this, Celc (1980:19) states that the intrinsic motivation can be affected by physical conditions, method, the teachers and the success.
Physical condition it is clear that the case of physical condition have a great affect in learning and can change a student’s motivation either positively or negatively, classroom that are badly conditioned and overcrowded can be a greatly motivation, but unfortunately many of them exist in school. Vitally important will be white board, it is easy visible? Is the surface in good condition? In general teacher are supposed to try to make their classroom as pleasant as possible. Even there the conditions are bad it many to be possible to improve the atmosphere with poster, student’s work on the walls.
The method by which students are taught must have some effect on their motivation. If they find it boring they will probably become them, motivated, whereas if they have confidence in the method they will and it motivating. But perhaps this is the most area of all to be paid attention. We said earlier that a really motivated student will probably success whatever the method is used (Krashen, 1983:25). It is also true that different students are more or less favored to any particular method depending on their expectation.
Girard in Harmer (1994:13) attempted to answer the previous question. He took data on a thousand children between the ages 12-17. they were asked to put a list of teacher qualifies in order of preference. The children showed what their teaming priorities were by putting these qualities in the following order -1= most important, 10= least important:
1. he makes his course interesting
2. he teaches good pronunciation
3. he explain clearly
4. he speaks good English
5. he shows the same interest in all his students
6. he makes all the students participate
7. he shows great patience
8. he insists on the spoken language
9. he makes his pupils work
10. he uses an audio-lingual method
Interestingly, the main point of the study, to see if the audio-lingual method was popular only come at the tenth. Students were more concerned that classes should be interesting, and thereof the top ten qualities 5,6 and 7 are concerned with the relationship between teacher and the students.
Another factor that should be paid attention in relation to motivations are as follows:
- Concept of Personality
Personality according to daily definition. In English personality word is derived from Latin namely person, gradually person word ( personality) changed to become one item that give a certain social description which is received by individual from group or society and than the individual will hope to have attitude suitable with social description.
Personality according to psychology. All expert states that a personality is a dynamic organization of the psychophysics system which were to decide action and feeling person (Koswara, 1991; 11).
In similar sence, Dulay et.al. (1982: 94) defines that personality refers to an aggregate of traits or characteristic of a particular individual. Research indicates that how low anxiety level and tendency to be out going is, both expression of self confidence, have a positive effect on second language acquisition. It appears that self confidence people are more willing to take risk, to place themselves in unfamiliar learning situation, to guess or experiment with new from and to make mistakes, all of which to contribute to their increased ability to learn.
- Personality Factors
Basically, human beings soul can be differentiated into two aspects, namely: ability aspects and personality aspect. Ability aspect consist of achievement, characteristic, adjustment, interest, attitude and motivation (Haryono, 1993: 1).
There are two kinds of psychological factors expressed by Ellis (1985: 9) , namely personality factors and general factors. Personality factor consist of age, intelligence and aptitude, cognitive style, attitude and motivation. Personality factor is highly idiosyncratic of each individual approach to learning a second language. Here are personality traits which are relevant to this study:
a. Interest Factor
winkle (1986: 105) says that interest is defined to be inclination of subject permanently, for interest some reason given enjoyment to learn something. An interest is a subjective attitude concern or condition involving a perfection or an idea, an attention, a combination or intellectual and feeling consciousness temporary or permanent, based on the motive curiosity conditioned by experienced.
Interest and good feeling have close relationship. The students who were on bad or good feeling would process lower interest or on the contrary.
1. attitude Factor
“psychologists who study attitudes construct scale in such a way that an individual can strongly agree or strongly disagree or just disagree some attitude statement. In describing people’s attitude we can be conceived of them having varying degrees of strength intensity” (Mupliha, 1988:9)
Another assumption on attitude could be expressed by Winkle (2986:77) that action is the ability that has a part in taking action.
There are different language in society which language attitude has essential goals in language use’s life as Haugen (1895:95-96) writes that:
“whenever language in contact, one is likely to find certain prevalent attitude of favor towards or disfavor towards the languages involved. These can have profound effect on the language. In the final analysis these attitudes are directed at the people who use the language and therefore inter group judgment and stereotypes” (Kamaruddin, 1992:40).
Based on the description above, the writer can draw a conclusion that attitude is all of the human action aroused by several behaviors whether from internal or external response.
2. Aptitude Factor
It is fairly common assumption that there is such thing as a special went, knack, gift, or aptitude for second language learning, which some learner process to a greater extent than other in which it is to large extent responsible for individual differences in second language learning success.
Pimsleur (1966: 182) dictation three components of language aptitude:
1. verbal intelligence, by which is meant both familiarity with words and the ability to reason analytically about verbal materials.
3. Auditory ability
Referring to the statements before, the writer would like to make a definitions about aptitude is the ability of individual in doing something that it has been gotten naturally but is increased through practice regularly.
One of the main aspect in learning English is motivation, Donald et, al, (1957:77) define that motivation is energy within the person characterized by affective arousal and anticipatory goal reacting cuter in (Mupliha,1988:19). It is expressed by (Jannah,1994: 10) that:
“Motivation is kind of internal drive that encourages someone to pursue a course of action. If we perceive a goal is sufficiently attractive, we will be strongly motivated to do whatever is necessary to reach that goal”.
There are two categories of motivation, namely: integrative and instrument motivation. In integrative motivation students are attracted by the culture of the target in communication, and in strong from of integrative motivation they wish to integrate themselves into that culture, and instrumental motivation is this term describing a situation in which students behave that mastery of the target learning will be instrumental in getting them better job, position or status.
In the same way , two different clusters of attitudes divide two basic types of motivation emphasized by Gardner and Lambert (1972:17) as instrumental motivation referring to motivation to acquire a language as means for attending instrument goals; furthering a career, reading technical material, translation, and so forth an integrative motive is employed when learners wish to integrate themselves within the culture of the second language group, to identify themselves with and become a part of the society.
To clarify the illustration above, there is a little bit a distinction on motivation is delivered by Graham (1984:45) by giving the differences between integrative and assimilative motivation. Integrative motivation is desire on the communicate with, or find out about members of the second language group. Assimilative motivation is the drive to become an indistinguishable contact with the second culture (Brown, 1998: 117).
To clear up some definition above, the writer will take a conclusion that motivation is desire or willingness to do something with appears even internal or external human beings. And motivation in learning depends on the teacher student interaction.
The Factors Affective Intrinsic Motivation
We can consider some affecting intrinsic motivation under the heading of physical condition, method, teacher and success, namely:
a. Physical Condition
It is clear that physical condition has a great effect on learning, and can a student’ motivation, either positively or negatively.
In this case students are taught must have some effects on their motivation. If they find it deadly boring, they will find it probably become motivated, whereas if they have confidence in method, they will find it motivating. But perhaps this is the most difficult are to be certain of. Moreover, it is also true that different students are more or less sympathetic to any particular method depending upon their expectation.
c. The teacher
Whether the student like the teacher or not be very significant. For example, there are two teachers using the same method the result can be different. We may basically assess the qualities. A teacher needs to provide intrinsic motivation.
Success or lack of it plays a vital part in the motivational drive of the student. Both complete failure and success may be motivating. It will be the teacher’s job to sets goals and task at when most of his or her students can be successful or set task with he or she could realistically expect the students to be able to achieve.
Ultimately , the student’s success or failure in their own hands, but the teacher can influence events in the student’ favor.
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