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SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS VARIATION OF NEGATION IN SUMBAWA LANGUAGE

 SKRIPSI BAHASA INGGRIS BARU

 CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of The Study
Language and culture constitute the shining example of each nation identity. the unique and universal distinction at language characteristics can identify the existence of a language status and user. These are general characteristics of universal linguistic principle (Taringan, 1984: 32 linguistics principles provide the basic construction of a language sentence structure, word, suffixes, etc used together by a speech community is essential for communication in their mother tongue. It is fundamental function of language to bring the people into the relationship with their environment (nababan in sundawan, 1995: 1 )
    A claim or a confirmation that the interesting at language by a view that  the natural characteristic and certain language structure constitutes the reflection of culture where  the language used. As a variety of varied language archipelago that hold the position as regional language and ethnic. One of them is a regional language found in NTB, especially, Samawa language used in Sumbawa besar  and west Sumbawa regency.
    Samawa language is a regional  in Sumbawa island supported by the great majority of speech community . a  regional language, it is primarily spoken in sumbawa island. It is found some constituent of negations in small  of lingual unit in which it is called negative sentence. The constituent of negations of samawa language are:  
no           no/not
siong      no/not       small of lingual units as free morfheme
nopoka  not yet
By these three constituent negations, negative –marker “No” has different interest than others, so that it will the main topic in this study. The interesting thing of negative-marker “No” is it can be constructed into some variations by different meanings but still showing negation. These variations such as: nongka (no),nosi (no),beno (no I don’t), nomongka (no more), nomo(don’t),nomonda (no more), beno (no  i   don’t),nosoka (no).

1.2  Focus of the Study
The present study is about he variation of negation in Sumbawa language from small construction of constituent negation negation  “no” as negative marker  until the big construction of lingual unit in language communications as it really used in a community.

1.3  Statement of the Problems
As in the case of other language, negation of Samawa language includes the complex problems. These problems. These problems are more complex than adding negative –marker “no’ is brought into line with “pronoun” and other elements.  
      Basically, the problem that will be solved through this study is how negative-marker “no” and is variations are spoken in samawa language.
1.      What is the form of negation in samawa language?
2.      What variations are there for negation in the language?

1.4  Objectives of the study
In general, this study will try o describe to construction of negative-marker  “no” of samawa language by using a set of linguistic theory, especially, the purpose of this study includes:
1.      The form of negation in the Sumbawa language.
2.      The variations re there for  negation in the language.

1.5  Significance of Study
In this study will contribute positive advantages to expand the firmament of science for the university study, teacher and lecture to be informative data as  on e of linguistic study especially in syntactical field in Samawa  language. The advantages of this study are as follows:
a.       Theoretically
1.      As a guidelines in of comprehension about negation in samawa language
2.      As additional knowledge about values and daily communication, ect.
3.      To enrich the concept of linguistic especially in syntactical and semantic field
b.      Practically regional
1.      To maintain and preserve the storage area for  valuable objects of regional language specially for samawa ethnic language
2.      As comparison of data among regional languages, national language/state and other  language
3.      As supported  toward language teaching in school and surrounding education.

1.6  Definition of key term
Concerning with the study, definition f key term  important to clarify the inside idea of term in this study. The terms are as follows:
1.      Variation
Variation is a concept that includes the variant and variable. Lyons et. ol. In David (1985:370)
States that variable. Lyons et.ol. in david (1985:370) states that variant defined as a term used in linguistic to refer to a linguistic form which is one of a set of alternatives in given context. The concept is fundamental to the notion of (allophone-morph).
2.      Prohibition sentence
Prohibition sentence is a sentence a that forbids some one to do something (oxford dictionary 1980:330).


3.      Word or Negative-marker  ‘’No’’ (tidak)
The use of constituent negation as one of parameter in word classification, this constituent negation are ‘’tidak’’, ‘’bukan’’, etc in Indonesian language (Ramlan in sundaryono, 1993: 1). 
Universally constituent negation is as negative-marker  (given  in sudaryono, 1993:38). Word ‘’no’’ (tidak) as negative-marker is one of constituent negation in sawama language. Word ‘’no’’ is one of constituent negation that has function as negative-marker in negation of negative-sentence construction of samawa language.  
4.      Language
Language is a systematic means of communicating ideas for feeling by the use of conventionalized sign, sound, gestures, our mark having understood meaning (Webster, view collegiate dictionary 1981):645 in Alwasih 198).
5.      Samawa language
                   Regional language usually serve as the communication code among friend, neighbors or members of one’s own family, which is regarded, as traditional (soedarno in halim, 1981:156).
Samawa language is a regional language that is used for most the people who occupy in sumbawa besar and west Sumbawa regency as a mean of communication.




CHAPTER
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This research is investigated by using a set of theories coming from some sources. The sources are a set of principle theories about negation in English and Indonesian language by linguistics. The concepts about negation through the long discussion since Aristotle began citing his theory in negation until horn’s concepts in modern abbreviation and finally continued by Indonesia linguists. Other sources are the investigations of regional languages in Indonesia that has been done by university studies in their mini thesis, lectures in their dissertation and the investigations that were done by center of language creation and development of government project to be comparating materials as reference materials to facilitate and give contribution in this study significantly.

2.1  Morphology, Syntax and Semantic
Grammar is traditionally sub divided into two different but interrelated areas of study-morphology and syntax (Radford 1998:01).
In order to give whole illustration about morphology cited in some linguistic. Nida (1957-01).
Godby et.al. (1982-02) said that morphology is the study of the ways in which word are  constructed out of smaller meaningful units.
From the various definitions above, it is clear that morphology is concerned with the form of words or how word are constructed or the smallest meaningful units, namely morphemes.
Another area of study in grammar is syntax, it is cited in Alwasilah (1985:104) He stated that:
Syntax is the branch of the grammar which is concerned with the study of the arrangement of words in sentence and of the means by which such relationship are shown, e.g. word order or inflection.
Syntax is the study and rules of the relation of the word to one another as expressions of idea and apart of the structure of sentence, the study and science of the sentence construction, and
Syntax is concerned with the discovery of basic sentence types and with description of the possible substitution for each element of the basic types. 
Syntax is the study of how word go together to form sentence (Elson and Picket in Johari 1996:7). According to Thomas in Johari (1996:7), “syntax is the structure of units larger than words”.

2.2  Negation
The appearing of any opinion about negation to make what Aristotles’ is perfect in which he formulated the concept of negation by logical terminology theory’s as opposite system or as a tool in expressing the values of incorrectness (Aristotles in Sudaryono, 1993: 11).
      Next concept cited by Jespersen, negation is not only formulated from logical views. Based on the  parameter of correctness or incorrectness, generality and ungenerality, but also begin to consider the sense as base of pattern of negation (Jespersen in Sudaryono, 1993: 13). Another definition by Givon in Sudaryono and assumption that expressed by speaker and his/her parther.

2.3  Negative Sentence
Before talking about what negative sentence is. The first step is know the base of negative-sentence construction concerning with the construction of negative-sentence it self. It is about definition of sentence.
Keraf (1984: 40) stated, “Sentence is the smallest unit of word that has a complete sense.
           
2.4  The Valence of Negative Sentence
In kamus Bahasa Indonesia stated that valence is ‘hubungan sintaksis antara verba  dan unsur-unsur di sekitarnya, mencakup kentrasitifan dan penguasaan verba atas argumen-argumen disekitarnya’ (Harimurti, 1983:175).
A valence of grammar presents a model of a sentence containing a fundamental element (typically the verb) and a number of dependent elements (variously referred as arguments, expressions, complements, or valences) whose number and type is determined by the valence attribute to the verb. For example : the valence of vanish includes only the subject element (it has valence of 1, mono valence).
A verb which to be no complements at all (such as rain) is said to have zero valence (be non valence). Words give and put usually have 3 valence (three valence).

2.5  The Shape of Expression and the Construction of Negation
Process of negation means the act performance, style, or the manner to denying or negating. It can be expressed lingually and nonlingually and formed by two element. Both of them are segmental element and supra segmental element. Supra segmental concerns with stressing and pitch that can be identified as a part of supra segmental sound or other term is called “prosodi”, by especially intonation such as one of negative-marker variation “nongka” is  usually utterance with sound “ngka” and “nonda” is represented by sound “nda” in Samawa Language. Yet, this study is focused to negation segmental manner and limited to a constituent negation “no” constructed from free morpheme in some variation. Lyons and Quick in Sudaryono (1993: 32) sated that the morpheme clearly support the function of negation if in a construction.

2.6  Regional Language
Regional language usually serve as the communication code among friend, neighbors, or members of one’s own family, which is in form and emotional or far a topic which is regarded as traditional (Soedarnomo in Halim, 1981: 156). The classification of three types of regional language in Indonesia thet was cited by Halim (1981: 157), are :
1)      Small regional language whose native speaker are a few thousands people,
2)      Regional language which are actually dialects of Malay,
3)      Major regional language, which are spoken by a large number of native speakers.





CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHOD

3.1  Research Design
First of all, the writer  formulated how this study is carried out. The problems which are found by the write concerning with the interesting word form of constituent negation “no” as negative-marker in negative sentence contributing of Samawa language. The term of constituent negation and negative-marker are closely related to the form of variation in negative sentence construction of Samawa language.
Furthermore, the writer could identify tgis investigation as descriptive research; it means that the writer gives the description about “variation of I (negation in Samawa language systematically, factually, and accurately. Arikunto (1990: 310) said that descriptive research is the investigation to describe the factual thing about a variable, phenomenon and situation. Some characteristics of descriptive research were cited by Nida in Johari (2005: 25) as follows:
a.       Descriptive analysis should be based on the language that is used by its native speaker
b.      The form of language is more emphasized than it usage,
c.       The aspect of language cannot be explained completely if it is not related to the aspect of another language, and
d.      It follows language development for time to time.
3.2  Subject of Study
·         The subject of this research is Samawa language as a regional language specifically Samawa Rea dialect ( Sumbawa besar dialect) used by samawa ethnics people because Samawa Rea used as a compass or base of four dialects in Sumbawa. Sundawan (1995:22) stated that samawa Rea is used as a basic of daily conversation so far and well understood by all samawa people who live in 14 sub district in samawa regency. Meanwhile, there were 10 informants interviewed for this study. This amount of informants is representative for this study is not a case study.
3.3  Instrument of Research
One distinctive feature of qualitative research is it cannot be separated from participial observation, where/the research is a principle instrument in this study. Concerning with supported instrument used is field note and a set of recording (tape recorder) as a fit back instrument on the basic of custom and manners of elicitation, recording and document can be reformed and corrected.
3.4  Data Collection Method
In qualitative research, it is known the term of method incoping with the problem faced. Bogdan (1982: 115) implicitly gave the name of method as a goal to to expand the understanding about the difficulty of social situation and what involves in it. Furkan (1982: 36) sated method is a strategy used in collecting and analyzing data and also to answer the problem then come up. The term of technique it self stated by Crane and Angrosino in moleong (2004: 8). Technique mean something or cases done to hold an investigation.
3.5  Data analysis
      A presentation of the research result in this study uses the descriptive method. According to Moleong (2004: 11) in the descriptive method, data which is collected have the shape of words and have no the shape numbers. The writer would present data into form of words and sentences by using the descriptive method. In this study, the descriptive method would be previously operated bu the way to purpose the case specifically and pointing the case generally. This technique in usually called as inductive approach.
3.6  Trustworthiness of Data
As a principle proof that a certain information of data can be proved to fulfill the trustworthiness of data requisites, a triangulation technique would be used to prove the trustworthiness of descriptive data in this study. The triangulation is a technique to check the trustworthiness of data would take advantage of two ways in this study. The ways are as follows :
1)       By using data sources. This ways would compare the result of data of elicitation  and recording, and
By using method of data collection. This way would be required the existence of check up investigation in data collection.


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