iklan

DOWNLOAD MODUL BAHASA INGGRIS DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS



I.              Understanding Types of Text

Text can be classified into several types. The term of 'type' is sometime stated as 'genre'. These types of text are;
1.           Analytical Exposition
2.           Anecdote
3.           Descriptive
4.           Narrative
5.           Procedure
6.           News Items
7.           Discussion
8.           Explanation
9.           Hortatory Exposition
10.       Report
11.       Spoof
12.       Recount
13.       Review

These classification on type of text are based on analysis of three main elements of text. These elements of text are:
The purpose of the text; why is the text made?, what is text made for by its writer
The generic structure of the text; analyzing the used structure in composing the text, in what way is the text constructed by its writer.
The language feature; taking a look at the linguistic characterizations of the text, what kind of language feature is used to build the text by its writer.

 

1.      Analytical Exposition Text

What is Analytical Exposition?

1.      Definition of Analytical Exposition
Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter.
2.      Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition
·         Thesis: Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position
·         Argument 1: Explaining the argument to support the writer’s position
·         Argument 2: Explaining the other arguments support the writer’s position more
·         Reiteration: Restating the writer’s position
3.      Language Features of Analytical Exposition
·         Using relational process
·         Using internal conjunction
·         Using causal conjunction
·         Using Simple Present Tense
4.      Examples and structures of the text

Cars should be banned in the city
Thesis
Cars should be banned in the city. As we all know, cars create pollution, and cause a lot of road deaths and other accidents.
Arguments
Firstly, cars, as we all know, contribute to most of the pollution in the world.
Cars emit a deadly gas that causes illnesses such as bronchitis, lung cancer, and ‘triggers’ off asthma. Some of these illnesses are so bad that people can die from them.
Secondly, the city is very busy. Pedestrians wander everywhere and cars commonly hit pedestrians in the city, which causes them to die. Cars today are our roads biggest killers.
Thirdly, cars are very noisy. If you live in the city, you may find it hard to sleep at night, or concentrate on your homework, and especially talk to someone.
Reiteration
In conclusion, cars should be banned from the city for the reasons listed.

Example of Analytical Exposition
A.     Is Smoking Good for Us?
Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many as die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking.
Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater. Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smokers are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers.
Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as much as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes.
Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else.
Notes on the generic structure:
From the generic structure, what make big different is that analytical exposition ends with paragraph to strengthen the thesis while hortatory makes a recommendation for readers.
Thesis: This pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic. Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit.
Arguments: Presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before. In this example of analytical exposition text, paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who do not smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit.
Reiteration: This end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It is something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for Cigarette Companies
B.      Opportunity in the Global Financial Crisis
US financial crisis and its contagion to Europe and the rest of the world could also create new opportunity for Indonesia in term of foreign direc investment and the development of basic infrastructure.
As the US, financial crisis has now spread to Europe, the oil-rich countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and Arab Emirate which have accumulated hundreds of billion of Dollars in their foreign reserve, are now reviewing their holding or investment vehicle. They are looking for more diversified investment outside the US and Europe.
Because of unfavorable political developments in Thailand and Malaysia over the past few months, Indonesia which has largely Muslim population could become one of these oil-rich countries' favorite place for foreign direct investment. That wil be true if the conditions, legal and market infrastructures are conducive for Islamic financial instruments.
The government had improved the legal framework with the recent actment of laws on sharia banking and bonds. The long term nature of Islamic bonds could make them the most suitable investment instrument for Indonesia, as these bonds grant an investor a share in an asset along with the cash flows and risks commensurate with such ownership.
The financial crisis that has gripped the globe and weakening economic growth in the rest of the world will serve to the government to accelerate the investment reform measures in order to grab the hidden opportunity in the global crisis. (Simplified from the jakartapos.com on Oct 9)

NOTES ON Generic Structure:
·         Paragraph 1 is THESIS. It introduces the topic of the text which state the potential opportunity behind the glogal financial crisis.
·         Paragraphes 2 and 3 are the ARGUMENTS which support to the opinios stated in the above thesis.
·         Paragraph 4 is REITERATION which restates the thesis in another phrases to point the writer'opinion.
Conventionally, students need book, pen, eraser, drawing book, ruler and such other stuff. Additionally, in this multimedia era, students need more to reach their progressive development. Students need mobile keyboards to record every presented subject easily. Of course it will need more cost but it will deserve for its function.
First, modern schools tend to apply fast transferring knowledge because the school needs to catch the target of curriculum. Every subject will tend to be given in demonstrative method. Consequently students need extra media cover the subject. Since there is a laptop on every student’s desk, this method will help student to get better understanding.
Secondly, finding an appropriate laptop is not difficult as it was. Recently there is an online shop which provides comprehensive information. The best is that the shop has service of online shopping. The students just need to brows that online shop, decide which computer or laptop they need, and then complete the transaction. After that the laptop will be delivered to the students' houses. That is really easy and save time and money.
From all of that, having mobile computer is absolutely useful for students who want to catch the best result for their study. Buying laptop online is advisable because it will cut the price. This online way is recommended since online shop also provides several laptop types. Students just need to decide which type they really need.
Functionally, translation is transferring the message or the meaning and not the word. According to Nida, such translation is called dynamic equivalence translation. It tries to bring the precise message in different language.
Many people like to watch Hollywood movie but many get trouble in understanding to the actors' dialogue. So the way they get the understanding about the movie is reading the translating text running. If Hindi translation is provided, it will bring the better understanding for Indian moviegoer. Hollywood movie spread over other Asia countries. Therefore, Arabic translation, Indonesian translation and Farsi translation are widely needed and that is a big chance for English master in that countries.
India is likely being an English speaking country. India translation will grow better and. It seems Indonesia, Malaysia and Filipina will reach that mark too soon. Translation job will be great in amount and that is good development for translating job seekers.
E.      Writing is a Great for Money Online
The emergence of the internet has given internet entrepreneurs many ways to make money. Writers are one group that have benefited from their talents as a result in the rise of internet based jobs.
Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online determined by the owner of the blog. They are very popular because of tBlogs are usually written on a certain subject area but can vary as its content is heir simplicity to get up and running. There are many free websites out there that will help you set up your own blog if you choose to go that route because blog plus advertisement is a potential money
Article writing is also good money to earn money online. Make sure to gear your articles to promote and advertise you own business ventures. These articles are a free way to market the products and services you offer for free. The most effective advertising with these articles comes from the dialogue box that is inserted at the end of each article. These dialogue boxes contain links to basically any website you would like to drive traffic to. For instance, you might have one link in your dialogue box to a product you are selling and one to a blog where you are promoting a discussing other products.
Writing takes some time to gain credibility through but once it's done' earning potential can become very powerful.

Generic Structure Analysis
·         Thesis; Writing is good in making money online
·         Argument 1; blog is a potentially earning money
·         Argumant 2; writing articles is good in earning money
·         Conclusion; credible writer is powerful to make money online
Language Feature Analysis
·         Simple present tense; Blog writing is an increasingly popular way to earn money online, Writing takes some time to gain credibility, etc
·         Causal conjunction ; because, etc

 

2.      Anecdote Text

What is Anecdote?

1.      Definition and Social Function of Anecdote
Anecdote is a text which retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its purpose is to entertain the readers.
2.      Generic Structure of Anecdote
1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident.
3.      Language Feature of Anecdote
1. Using exclamation words; it's awful!, it's wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense
4.      Examples and structures of the text

Snake in the Bath 
Abstract
How would you like to find a snake in your bath?  A nasty one too!
Orientation
We had just moved into a new house, which had been empty for so long that everything was in a terrible mess. Anna and I decided we would clean the bath first, so we set to, and turned on the tap.
Crisis
Suddenly to my horror, a snake’s head appeared in the plug-hole. Then out slithered the rest of his long thin body. He twisted and turned on the slippery bottom of the bath, spitting and hissing at us.
Incident
For an instant I stood there quite paralysed. Then I yelled for my husband, who luckily came running and killed the snake with the handle of a broom. Anna, who was only three at the time, was quite interested in the whole business. Indeed I had to pull her out of the way or she’d probably have leant over the bath to get a better look!
Coda
Ever since then I’ve always put the plug in firmly before running the bath water.

Example of Anecdote
A.     Blessing behind Tragedy
There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved. They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.
The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America as they had planned.
The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.
Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.
The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a blessing behind a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)

Generic Structure Analysis
Abstract: Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. When the dream will come true, there is something wrong last minute before it. What will we feel? What will we do?
Orientation: the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to America. They prepared well for their plan
Crisis: few days before they went to America, his youngest son was bitten by a dog. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their plan.
Incident: the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry with his son and God. The family failed to travel to America and the father could not accept it.
Coda: the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God because of saving the family from sinking. He thought leaving behind the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.

3.      Description Text

What is Descriptive Text?

1.      The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text is a text which says what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.
2.      The Generic Structure of Descriptive Text
Descriptive text has structure as below:
·         Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described.
·         Description; describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and characteristics.
3.      The Language Feature of Descriptive Text
·         Using attributive and identifying process.
·         Using adjective and classifiers in nominal group.
·         Using simple present tense
4.      Examples and structures of the text

MacQuarie University
Identification
Macquarie University is one of the largest universities in Australia. This year, in 2004, it celebrates its 40th anniversary.
Description
The university is located at the North Ryde Greenbelt, Sydney, where the New South Wales government sets aside 135 hectares for the institution. In 1964, Macquarie area was a rural retreat on the city fringe, but today the campus and its surroundings have evolved beyond recognition. The North Ryde District has grown into a district of intensive occupation anchored by a vibrant and growing university.
Blessed with a fortunate location and room to breathe, Macquarie can be proud of that careful planning that retains and enrich the university’s most attractive natural features. A pleasing balance between buildings and plating is evident across the campus. This emphasis on the importance of landscape has created images of Macquarie as a place that members of the university are most likely to pleasurably recollect.
One of the highlights of the landscape is the Mars Creek zone. It comprises landscaped creek sides and valley floor, a grass amphitheatre, and artificial lake… surrounded by rocks and pebbles, native plants and eucalypts.
Today, a railway station is under construction. In three years1 time, Macquarie will be the only university in Australia with a railway station on site. Macquarie is poised to be the most readily accessible in Sydney region by rail and motorway, yet retaining its beautiful site.

Example of Description
I have a close Friend. She is beautiful, attractive and trendy. She always want to be a trend setter of the day. She always pays much attention on her appearance. Recently, she bought a new stylist foot legs from blowfish shoes products. This shoes really matches on her.
Her new blowfish women's shoes are wonderful. When she are walking on that shoes, all her friends, including me watch and admire that she has the most suitable shoes on her physical appearance. The style, bright color, and brand represent her as a smart woman of the day. She really have perfect appearance.
She is really mad on that shoes. She said that the products covered all genders. The blowfish men's shoes are as elegant as she has. The products provide varieties of choice. Ballet, casual, boot athletic shoes are designed in attractive way. The products are international trader mark and become the hottest trend.

B.      Borobudur Temple
Borobudur is Hindu - Budhist temple. It was build in the nineth century under Sailendra dynasty of ancient Mataram kingdom. Borobudur is located in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia.
Borobudur is well-known all over the world. Its construction is influenced by the Gupta architecture of India. The temple is constructed on a hill 46 m high and consist of eight step like stone terrace. The first five terrace are square and surrounded by walls adorned with Budist sculpture in bas-relief. The upper three are circular. Each of them is with a circle of bell shape-stupa. The entire adifice is crowned by a large stupa at the centre at the centre of the top circle. The way to the summit extends through some 4.8 km of passage and starways. The design of borobudur which symbolizes the structure of universe influences temples at Angkor, Cambodia.
Borobudur temple which is rededicated as an Indonesian monument in 1983 is a valuable treasure for Indonesian people.

Generic Structure Analysis
  • Identification; identifying the phenomenon to be described in general; Borobudur temple
  • Description; describing the Borobudur temple in parts; eight terraces of Borobudur temple and its characteristics
Language Feature Analysis
  • Using adjective and classifiers; valuable
  • Using simple present tense; Borobudur is well-known,The temple is constructed, etc

4.      Narrative Text

What is Narrative?

1.      Definition of Narrative
Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.
2.      Generic Structure of Narrative
A narrative text consists of the following structure:
1.      Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place
2.      Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with
3.      Resolution: Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse
3.      Language Features of Narrative
·         Using processes verbs
·         Using temporal conjunction
·         Using Simple Past Tense
4.      Examples and structures of the text

Snow White
Orientation
Once upon a time there lived a little girl named Snow White. She lived with her Aunt and Uncle because her parents were dead. 
Complication 1
One day she heard her Uncle and Aunt talking about leaving Snow White in the castle because they both wanted to go to America and they didn’t have enough money to take Snow White.
Resolution 1
Snow White did not want her Uncle and Aunt to do this so she decided it would be best if she ran away. The next morning she ran away from home when her Aunt and Uncle were having breakfast. She ran away into the woods.
Complication 2
 Then she saw this little cottage. She knocked but no one answered so she went inside and fell asleep.
Resolution 2
 Meanwhile, the seven dwarfs were coming home from work. They went inside. There they found Snow White sleeping. Then Snow White woke up. She saw the dwarfs. The dwarfs said, “what is your name?” Snow White said, “My name is Snow White.”
 Doc, one of the dwarfs,  said, “If you wish, you may live here with us.”  Snow White said, “Oh could I? Thank you.” Then Snow White told the dwarfs the whole story and Snow White and the 7 dwarfs lived happily ever after.

Example of Narative
A.     Queen of Arabia and Three Sheiks
Maura, who like to be thought of as the most beautiful and powerful queen of Arabia, had many suitors. One by one she discarded them, until her list was reduced to just three sheiks. The three sheiks were all equally young and handsome. They were also rich and strong. It was very hard to decide who would be the best of them.
One evening, Maura disguised herself and went to the camp of the three sheiks. As they were about to have dinner, Maura asked them for something to eat. The first gave her some left over food. The second Sheik gave her some unappetizing camel’s tail. The third sheik, who was called Hakim, offered her some of the most tender and tasty meat. After dinner, the disguised queen left the sheik’s camp.
The following day, the queen invited the three sheiks to dinner at her palace. She ordered her servant to give each one exactly what they had given her the evening before. Hakim, who received a plate of delicious meat, refused to eat it if the other two sheiks could not share it with him.
This Sheik Hakim’s act finally convinced Queen Maura that he was the man for her. “Without question, Hakim is the most generous of you” she announced her choice to the sheiks. “So it is Hakim I will marry”.
Narrative Complication in Generic Structure
As it is said many times that, the heart of narrative text is the existence of the complication. It will drive the plot of the story to keep amusing. The existence of conflict inside the Queen Maura is what builds the story keep running. The psychological conflict inside Maura, which she strikes against herself, is arousing the reader’s attention to continue reading the story. They want to know what next will happen, who will be chosen by Queen Maura; in what way she will decide who the best is. Keeping knowing them really entertaining as well increasing the moral value added.
Orientation: the text introduces the Queen Maura and three sheiks in Arabia once time.
Complication: Queen Maura finds out that it was very difficult to choose one as the best among them
Resolution: finally Queen Maura has a convincing way to choose one and he is Sheik Hakim
B.      The Smartest Parrot
Once upon time, a man had a wonderful parrot. There was no other parrot like it. The parrot could say every word, except one word. The parrot would not say the name of the place where it was born. The name of the place was Catano.
The man felt excited having the smartest parrot but he could not understand why the parrot would not say Catano. The man tried to teach the bird to say Catano however the bird kept not saying the word.
At the first, the man was very nice to the bird but then he got very angry. “You stupid bird!” pointed the man to the parrot. “Why can’t you say the word? Say Catano! Or I will kill you” the man said angrily. Although he tried hard to teach, the parrot would not say it. Then the man got so angry and shouted to the bird over and over; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”. The bird kept not to say the word of Catano.
One day after he had been trying so many times to make the bird say Catano, the man really got very angry. He could not bear it. He picked the parrot and threw it into the chicken house. There were four old chickens for next dinner “You are as stupid as the chickens. Just stay with them” Said the man angrily. Then he continued to humble; “You know, I will cut the chicken for my meal. Next it will be your turn, I will eat you too, stupid parrot”. After that he left the chicken house.
The next day, the man came back to the chicken house. He opened the door and was very surprised. He could not believe what he saw at the chicken house. There were three death chickens on the floor. At the moment, the parrot was standing proudly and screaming at the last old chicken; “Say Catano or I’ll kill you”.

Analysis the Generic Structure
Orientation: It sets the scene and introduces the participants/characters. In that parrot story, the first paragraph is the orientation where reader finds time and place set up and also the participant as the background of the story. A man and his parrot took place once time.
Complication: It explores the conflict in the story. It will show the crisis, rising crisis and climax of the story. In the parrot story, paragraph 2, 3, 4 are describing the complication. Readers will find that the man face a problem of why the parrot can not say Catano. To fix this problem, the man attempted to teach the bird. How hard he tried to teach the bird is the excitement element of the complication.
Resolution: It shows the situation which the problems have been resolved. It must be our note that “resolved” means accomplished whether succeed or fail. In the last paragraph of the smartest parrot story, readers see the problem is finished. The parrot could talk the word which the man wanted. The parrot said the word with higher degree than the man taught the word to it. That was the smartest parrot.

 

C.      The Legend of Toba Lake
Once upon time, there was a handsome man. His name was Batara Guru Sahala. He liked fishing. One day, he caught a fish. He was surprised to find out that the fish could talk. The fish begged him to set it free.
Batara Guru could not bear it. He made the fish free. As soon as it was free, the fish changed into a very beautiful woman. She attracted Batara Guru so much. He felt in love with that fish-woman. The woman wanted to marry with him and said that Batara Guru had to keep the secret which she had been a fish. Batara Guru aggreed and promised that he would never tell anybody about it.
They were married happily. They had two daughters. One day Batara Guru got very angry with his daughter. He could not control his mad. He shouted angrily and got the word of fish to his daugters. The daughters were crying. They found their mother and talked her about it.
The mother was very annoyed. Batara Guru broke his promise. The mother was shouting angrily. Then the earth began to shake. Volcanoes started to erupt. The earth formed a very big hole. People believed that the big hole became a lake. Then this lake is known as Toba Lake.
D.     Cinderella 1
Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Cinderella. She lived with her step mother and two step sisters.
The step mother and sisters were conceited and bad tempered. They treated Cinderella very badly. Her step mother made Cinderella do the hardest works in the house; such as scrubbing the floor, cleaning the pot and pan and preparing the food for the family. The two step sisters, on the other hand, did not work about the house. Their mother gave them many handsome dresses to wear.
One day, the two step sister received an invitation to the ball that the king’s son was going to give at the palace. They were excited about this and spent so much time choosing the dresses they would wear. At last, the day of the ball came, and away went the sisters to it. Cinderella could not help crying after they had left.
 “Why are crying, Cinderella?” a voice asked. She looked up and saw her fairy godmother standing beside her, “because I want so much to go to the ball” said Cinderella. “Well” said the godmother,”you’ve been such a cheerful, hardworking, uncomplaining girl that I am going to see that you do go to the ball”.
Magically, the fairy godmother changed a pumpkin into a fine coach and mice into a coachman and two footmen. Her godmother tapped Cinderella’s raged dress with her wand, and it became a beautiful ball gown. Then she gave her a pair of pretty glass slippers. “Now, Cinderella”, she said; “You must leave before midnight”. Then away she drove in her beautiful coach.
Cinderella was having a wonderfully good time. She danced again and again with the king’s son. Suddenly the clock began to strike twelve, she ran toward the door as quickly as she could. In her hurry, one of her glass slipper was left behind.
A few days later, the king’ son proclaimed that he would marry the girl whose feet fitted the glass slipper. Her step sisters tried on the slipper but it was too small for them, no matter how hard they squeezed their toes into it. In the end, the king’s page let Cinderella try on the slipper. She stuck out her foot and the page slipped the slipper on. It fitted perfectly.
Finally, she was driven to the palace. The king’s son was overjoyed to see her again. They were married and live happily ever after.

Notes on Generic Structure
Orientation: They were Cinderella her self as the main character of the story, her step mother which treated Cinderella badly, and her steps sister which supported her mother to make Cinderella was treated very badly. Cinderella was introduced as a hero in this story. She struggled against the bad treatment from her step mother and sisters.
Complication: In this Cinderella story, we can see clearly that there are Major Complication and Minor Complication.
The second paragraph is the major complication of this Cinderella story. Cinderella got bad treatment from her stepmother. It is the bad crisis which drives into several minor complications which Cinderella has to overcome.
Resolution: Like complication, there are Major Resolution and Minor Resolution.
In the last paragraph, it is said that finally Cinderella lived happily. It is the happy resolution of the bad treatment.

 

E.      The Smartest Animal.
Once there was a farmer from Laos. Every morning and every evening, he ploughed his field with his buffalo.
One day, a tiger saw the farmer and his buffalo working in the field. The tiger was very surprised to see a big animal listening to a small animal. The tiger wanted to know more about the big animal and the small animal.
After the man went home, the tiger spoke to the buffalo; “you are so big and strong. Why do you do everything the man tells you?” The buffalo answered; “oh, the man is very intelligent”.
The tiger asked; “can you tell me how intelligent he is?”. “No, I can’t tell you”, said the buffalo; “but you can ask him”
So the next day the tiger asked to the man; “Can I see your intelligence?”. But the man answered; “it at home”. “Can you go and get it?” asked the tiger. “Yes” said the man; “but I am afraid you will kill my buffalo when I am gone. Can I tie you to a tree?”
After the man tied the tiger to the tree, he didn’t go home to get his intelligence. He took his plough and hit the tiger. Then he said; “Now you know about my intelligence even you haven’t seen it.

Generic Structure Analysis
1.      Orientation; introducing specific participants; farmer and his buffalo, once in Laos
2.      Complication; revealing a series of crisis: the tiger wanted to know more about the farmer and the buffalo, the tiger wanted to know about the farmer’s intelligence.
3.      Resolution; the crisis is resolve: the farmer hit the tiger

Language Feature Analysis
·         Using saying verb; answered
·         Using thinking verb; saw, was surprised to
·         Using action verb; tie, hit
·         Using time conjunction; once, one day
·         Using connectives; after, the next day
·         Using past tense; there was a farmer, the man tied the tiger.


5.      Procedure Text

What is Procedure?

1.      Definition of Procedure

Procedure is a text that shows a process in order. Its social function is to describe how something is completely done through a sequence of series

2.      Generic Structure of Procedure

1. Goal: showing the purpose
2. Material: Telling the needed materials
3. Step 1-end: Describing the steps to achieve the purpose

3.      Language Feature of Procedure

 Using temporal conjunction
 Using action verb
 Using imperative sentence
 Using Simple Present Tense

4.      Examples and structures of the text


 Tujuan
(Goal)
 How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Bahan
(Material)

Ingredients
1 egg, 50 g cheese, ¼ cup milk, 3 tablespoons cooking oil, a pinch of salt and pepper
Utensils
Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate
  Langkah-langkah
(Step)
Method
  1. Crack an egg into a bowl
  2. Whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth
  3. Add milk and whisk well
  4. Grate the cheese into the bowl and stir
  5. Heat the oil in a frying pan
  6. Pour the mixture into the frying pan
  7. Turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns
  8. Cook both sides
  9. Place on a plate; season with salt and pepper
  10. Eat while warm.

Example of Procedure
A.     Planting Chilies
Planting is a nice activity in our spare time. The following is guided information on how to plant a chili-plant easily. Here are the steps.
Firstly, dry a handful seeding under the sunlight
Secondly, put the seeding on the soil. It should be in open area
Next, wait it. There will come out the sprout after that let it be bigger.
Finally, put it in another big pot. It will soon grow bigger and bigger and yield us some fresh chilies soon.

Generic Structure Analysis
·         Goal; informing on how to plant chillies.
·         Material; excluded
·         Steps; showing the steps or method in planting chillies; from drying seed to putting the sprout in big pot.
·         Language Feature Analysis
Imperative sentences; dry a handful seeding, put it, etc
·         Action verb; put, dry, etc
·         Temporal conjunction; next, finally, firstly, secondly
·         Simple present tense pattern; planting is a nice activity, the following is a guided information

B.       Writing For Business
Writing something for your business can be pretty intimidating. Well, you don't have to.
Here's a simple checklist to follow. I'm not saying that following these rules will make your company the next Google, but it will help.
Firstly, take the topic of benefits, not features. Your customers don't care about you. They want to know "What's in it for me?"

Secondly, write your benefit like you talk it. Use regular words. Read aloud what you've written. How does it sound?
Thirdly, lose the weak words. Don't describe how your company may, might or should help customers but talk about how your company will.
Fourthly, Use a nice rhythm. Some sentences are long and some are short. Mix them up and keep things interesting.
Fifthly,re-read what you've done before publishing. Edit it necesarily. It's so easy to make mistakes which you don't notice the first time through.
Simplified from: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Daniel_F_O'connor

Generic Structure Analysis
·         Goal; informing on how to write for business
·         Material; excluded
·         Steps/ method; showing the method in writing for business; choosing the advantageous topic, writing the topic like the way it is talked, re-reading what have been written .
Language Feature Analysis
·         Imperative sentences; write like you talked, re-read what you have done, etc
·         Action verb; write, read, etc
·         Temporal conjunction, firstly, secondly, etc

C.      How to Make a Cheese Omelet
Well, to make a cheese omelet, you need an egg, fifty gram cheese, a quarter cup of milk, three tablespoons cookin oil, a pinch of satlt and pepper. Next, you need some tools, such as; frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl and plate.
Listen carefully,
First, crack an egg into a bowl and whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth. Next, add
First,






 

6.      News Item Text

What is News Item?

1.      Definition of News Item
News item is a text which informs readers about events of the day. The events are considered newsworthy or important.
2.      Generic Structure of News Item
1. Main event
2. Elaboration (background, participant, time, place)
3. Resource of information
3.      Language Feature of News Item
1. Focusing on circumstances
2. Using material process
4.      Examples and structures of the text

Town ‘Contaminated
Newsworthy events
Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.
Background Events
Yelena Vazrshavskya is the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.

The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered  up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the clean up operation to remove more than 600 tones of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.
Sumber Informasi
Sources
A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.

Example of Procedure
A.     Malaysian Women Suggested to Carry Condoms
Malaysian Deputy Health Ministry urged every woman to carry a condom to protect against HIV, a news report said.
 “This is not to debate them but to protect them. Women are the first ones to get exploited by their partners (whom are infected by HIV-positive)” Abdul Latiff Ahmad was quoted as saying by Sunday Star Newspaper. “But this just a suggestion, it’s up to them”.
Abdul latiff made remark to coincide with the International Aids Memorial day, which was celebrated openly for the first time in Malaysia, in bid to reduce stigma for HIV-victim. In the past the event was held behind closed door.
Last year, 745 Malaysian women were identified as HIV-positive and 193 were diagnosed with AIDS, he said in the report. Officials have said nearly 81000 Malaysian have been infected with HIV, less then 10 percent are woman, but the number is steadily rising.
Malaysian Aids Council president, Adeebah Kamarulzaman, was quoted as saying besides sex workers, many women who contract HIV are housewives, were infected unknowingly by their husbands. “It’s not that people don’t know that condoms can protect them. But there are some men who don’t care to take precaution, even though they know they have HIV” she said.
(Source The Jakarta Post, June 01, 2008)
Generic Structure Analysis
News worthy event: Malaysian women is urged to carry condoms to protect HIV.
Background event 1: International Memorial Day was held openly in Malaysia to reduce stigma for HIV victims.
Background event 2: The number of Malaysian women who are infected with HIV is steadily rising.
Source: Malaysian Aids Council president said that there were some men who did not care to take precaution even though they knew they had HIV
B.      Indonesian Maid in HK Court after Having Sex
A 45-year old Indonesian maid admitted having sex with her Hong Kong employer’s 14-year old son after watching internet porn together.
The maid is a divorcee and a mother of two children. The maid, named Suwartin, had worked with the boy family for 11 years.
A court heard how the maid had sex with the boy in relationship that lasted five months. The boy tried to end the affair but she refused. The teenager eventually confessed to the relationship to the leader of Christian group he belonged to.
Then the maid was arrested. She pleaded guilty to five charges of committing an indecent act with underage partner. She will be sentenced in two week’s time.
She later apologized and said that she would live with the shame of what she had done for the rest of life. “She had acted out of loneliness” the maid’s lawyer said.
(Adapted from Reuters, Hong Kong, May 6, 2008)
Generic Structure Analysis
News worthy event: Indonesian maid court and admitted having sex with her young employer
Background event: The maid is a divorcee. She had worked in the boy family for 11 years. She had relationship the boy for five months. She apologized and felt guilty
Source: The maid lawyer said that the maid had acted out of loneliness
C.      Indonesian Maid beheaded
An Indonesian housemaid has been executed in Saudi Arabia after being convicted of killing her employer, the Saudi Interior Minister said.
The woman was beheaded in the Southern Asir province in what was the second execution in the country.
The maid was earlier found of suffocating her female boss and stealing her jewellery. Rape, murder and other serious crimes can carry the death penalty in the conservative desert kingdom.
Last year, Saudi Arabia, which follow a strict intepretation of Syaria, Islamic law executed more than 130 people.
 (Taken from: www.news.bbc.co.id)
Generic Structure Analysis
Main event; an Indonesian maid was beheaded in Saudi Arabia.
Background 1; the maid was found guilty of suffocating her bos.
Background 2; serious crimes can carry death penalty in Saudi Arabia.
Background 3; Saudi Arabia executed more than 130 people last year.
Resource; the Saudi Interior Minister statement.
Language Feature Analysis
Focussing circumtances; law of serious crimes.
Using material process; behead, execute, carry, etc

7.      Discussion Text

What is Discussion?

1.      Definition of Discussion
Discussion is a text which present a problematic discourse. This problem will be discussed from different viewpoints. Discussion is commonly found in philosophical, historic, and social text.
2.      Generic Structure of Discussion
·         Statement of issue; stating the issue which is to discussed
·         List of supporting points; presenting the point in in supporting the presented issue
·         List of contrastive point; presenting other points which disagree to the supporting point
·         Recommendation; stating the writer' recommendation of the discourse
3.      Language Feature of Discussion
·         Introducing category or generic participant
·         Using thinking verb; feel, hope, believe, etc
·         Using additive, contrastive, and causal connection; similarly, on the hand, however, etc
·         Using modalities; must, should, could, may, etc
·         Using adverbial of manner; deliberately, hopefully, etc
4.      Examples and structures of the text

Homework
Issue
I have been wondering if homework is necessary.
Statement of issue and Preview
I think we should have homework because it helps us to learn and revise our work.
Homework helps people who aren’t very smart to remember what they have learned. Homework is really good because it helps with our education.
Statement of various viewpoints
But, many times, doing homework is not a great idea. I think we shouldn’t have homework because I like to go out after school to a restaurant or the movies. Sometimes homework is boring and not important.
I think homework is bad because I like to play and discuss things with my family.

Example of Discussion Text
A.     Example of Discussion Text on Nuclear Power
The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power
Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at Calder Hall in Cumbria, England in 1956.
Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine. Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed, and produces huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:
  • It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make.
  • It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not contribute to the greenhouse effect.
  • It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of uranium.
  • It produces small amount of waste.
  • It is reliable.
Ingin Versi Lengkapnya , Silahkan Klik  DOWNLOAD 

Bagikan :
+
Previous
Next Post »
0 Komentar untuk "DOWNLOAD MODUL BAHASA INGGRIS DISCUSSION MATERIALS OF GENRE For SENIOR HIGH SCHOLL STUDENTS"

 
Template By Kunci Dunia
Back To Top